22 Marec 2023
European social policies aim to promote employment, improve living and working conditions, provide adequate social protection and combat social exclusion.Read more
European social policies aim to promote employment, improve living and working conditions, provide adequate social protection and combat social exclusion. These policies are generally the competence and responsibility of the EU Member States but the European Pillar of Social Rights gives new momentum to initiatives at European level.Read less
EU convergence: Geographical dimension, impact of COVID-19 and the role of policy
Ekonomske in socialne neenakosti v Evropi po pandemiji covida-19
The European Pillar of Social Rights, endorsed in November 2017, is built upon 20 key principles, structured around: equal opportunities and access to the labour market; fair working conditions; and social protection and inclusion.Read more
The European Pillar of Social Rights, endorsed in November 2017, is built upon 20 key principles, structured around: equal opportunities and access to the labour market; fair working conditions; and social protection and inclusion. On 4 March 2021, the European Commission presented its action plan to fully implement the Pillar, turning the principles into concrete actions to benefit EU citizens, while also supporting the recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. It outlines three EU-level targets to be achieved by 2030 and that will help to steer national policies and reforms:
- At least 78% of the population aged 20 to 64 should be in employment by 2030
- At least 60% of all adults should participate in training every year
- The number of people at risk of poverty or social exclusion should be reduced by at least 15 million by 2030, including at least 5 million children
Implementation of the Pillar largely depends on the actions of the Member States, who primarily hold responsibility for employment, skills and social policies. The Commission supports Member States in achieving these targets by providing guidance and coordination of national economic and social policies via the European Semester process, including related country-specific recommendations, in order to strengthen employment and social policies and to invest in social services and social infrastructure.
In the social policy area, in June 2021, the Commission launched a European Platform on Combating Homelessness and in September 2022, presented a new European Care Strategy, including an initiative on long-term care and the revision of the Barcelona targets. Also in 2022, it put forward a proposal for a Council Recommendation on minimum income. It has also launched in 2021 a high-level expert group to study the future of the welfare state.
The European Social Policy Network (ESPN), set up by the Commission in 2014, provides independent information, analysis and expertise on social policies. The principles in the Social Pillar provide an extensive basis for development of new initiatives.
- European Commission: European Pillar of Social Rights Action Plan
- European Commission: European Platform on Combatting Homelessness
- European Commission: A European Care Strategy for caregivers and care receivers
- European Commission: Recommendation on minimum income
- European Commission: Making the social welfare state fit for the future: Commission launches new EU High-Level Group
- European Commission: European Social Policy Network (ESPN)
Eurofound’s work on social policies links in with the Commission’s 2019–2024 priority on a European Green Deal.
- About Eurofound: EU priorities: A European Green Deal
- European Commission: A European Green Deal
Eurofound links its research to the policy priorities formulated by the European institutions and social partners. The Agency’s research findings show how policies are working out in practice, what approaches have been shown to work, and indicate how policies can be made more effective.Read more
Eurofound links its research to the policy priorities formulated by the European institutions and social partners. The Agency’s research findings show how policies are working out in practice, what approaches have been shown to work, and indicate how policies can be made more effective.
European Quality of Life Survey
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) provides a fairly comprehensive picture of living conditions and helps depict new or emerging risks that can inform the social policies of the future. EQLS 2016, the fourth survey since 2003, looks at the situation around work and family life, health and care services, education, living standards, as well issues around social tensions and social inclusion.
Largely based on EQLS data, Eurofound produces a series of policy briefs from each survey on a range of topics providing background information and policy pointers for all actors and interested parties engaged in the current European debate on the future of social policy. Topics based on data from the EQLS 2016 include:
- What makes capital cities the best places to live?
- Is rural Europe being left behind?
- Age and quality of life: Who are the winners and losers?
- Social and employment situation of people with disabilities
- Social insecurities and resilience
Read more in our publication series: European Quality of Life 2016
Research on vulnerable groups
Other social policy research has examined a range of measures aimed at improving the situation of vulnerable groups. In particular, Eurofound has carried out extensive research on policies targeting young people, particularly those aged 15–29 who are not in employment, education or training (NEETs), long-term unemployed youth, as well as young people with disabilities or health problems. Research has also focused on issues affecting older people, including innovative solutions around income and retirement. Additional studies have looked at access to early childhood care, home-care services, and care homes for older Europeans. Research has also examined equal opportunities and social mobility in Europe and measures to promote employment opportunities for economically inactive persons, while evidence on in-work poverty has been assessed.Read less
Key outputs over the years
Publications & dataTop
The sections below provide access to a range of publications, data and ongoing work on this topic.
- Publications (746)
- Ongoing work (2)
Eurofound publications come in a variety of formats, including reports, policy briefs, blogs, articles and presentations.
EU convergence: Geographical dimension, impact of COVID-19 and the role of policyPublication 22 Marec 2023
Solidarity with Ukraine and support for the Ukrainian people is unwaveringČlanek 24 Februar 2023
Ekonomske in socialne neenakosti v Evropi po pandemiji covida-19Publication 24 Januar 2023
Risk of depression runs high as Europe and its neighbours struggle with cost-of-living crisisNews 7 December 2022
Življenje, delo in covid-19 v Evropski uniji in desetih sosednjih državah EUPublication 7 December 2022
First responses to cushion the impact of inflation on citizensČlanek 12 September 2022
Policies to support EU companies affected by the war in UkraineČlanek 12 September 2022
Youth first! Employment, skills and social policies that work for young Europeans in times of uncertaintyEvent 8 September 2022
Access to essential services for people on low incomes: Energy, public transport and digital communicationsPublication 7 September 2022
Policies to support refugees from UkraineČlanek 5 Julij 2022
A selection of related data on this topic are linked below.
Research continues in this topic on a variety of themes, which are outlined below with links to forthcoming titles.
Intergenerational differences over timePublication Julij 2023
Adapting to a new reality: Provision and use of public services in COVID-19 timesPublication Avgust 2023
Other topics addressed will include:
- Examining services for labour market integration of people with disabilities based on data from the 4th EQLS to support policymaking in designing relevant and efficient services
- Mapping developments in advisory for household debt in EU countries as well as identifying barriers to access these services to combat poverty and assessing take-up
- Analysing differences and inequalities in access to social services of general interest in the EU and assessing the nature and extent of convergence/divergence
- Exploring wealth and transmission of (dis-) advantage in the context of social mobility, with the possibility to inform policymakers about equality of opportunity and fairness in society
- Monitoring convergence in social protection and providing in-depth analyses of convergence trends among European countries as well as a discussion of policy options to restore convergence among Member States
- Report on regional convergence and inequalities, which investigates evolutions of social imbalances (e.g. unemployment, social exclusion, poverty) at the regional level and examines the relationship between growth, regional disparities and interpersonal inequalities