In June 1999, the debate on Italy's collective bargaining system was revived
by a call on the part of employers for greater flexibility and
decentralisation. Trade unions, though with differing emphases, do not share
this point of view and stress the importance of maintaining the current
two-tier bargaining structure. Another issue at stake is the redefinition of
bargaining units and the possible creation of new sectoral agreements,
notably for those branches which are affected by privatisation and
Shortly before the 1999 summer recess, the Lower House of the Dutch
parliament amended a government legislative proposal for unpaid care leave,
proposing instead a paid arrangement. The proposed 10 days of care leave is
aimed at enabling employees to take care of their ill children or other
family members. The Lower House want the arrangement to be funded from the
existing Unemployment Fund, which is financed by employer and employee
On 21 June 1999, the temporary employment agency Adecco
Personaldienstleistungen GmbH and a bargaining cartel of six trade unions
signed a "collective agreement on the hiring-out of labour on the occasion of
the EXPO 2000 world exhibition" (Tarifvertrag zur Arbeitnehmerüberlassung
anläßlich der Weltausstellung EXPO 2000 ).The unions involved were the
IG Metall metalworkers' union, the Food and Restaurants Workers' Union
(Gewerkschaft Nahrung Genuß Gaststätten, NGG), the Building, Agriculture
and Environmental Union (IG Bauen-Agrar-Umwelt), the Trading, Banking and
Insurance Union (Gewerkschaft Handel Banken und Versicherungen, HBV), the
Public Services, Transport and Traffic Union (Gewerkschaft Öffentliche
Dienste, Transport und Verkehr, ÖTV) and the German White-Collar Workers'
Union (Deutsche Angestellten-Gewerkschaft, DAG) The agreement will cover
approximately about 7,000 employees who will be recruited by Adecco in order
to work at the EXPO 2000 exhibition, which will take place in Hanover from 1
June until 31 October 2000. Adecco is the exclusive provider of personnel
services to EXPO 2000 Hannover GmbH, the company which is responsible for the
overall organisation of the world exhibition.
Following the publication of statistics indicating a sharp rise in
unemployment in Greece, and government analyses of the connection between
unemployment and the increased presence of immigrants, the GSEE trade union
confederation has reiterated its positions on addressing rising unemployment
and on dealing with economic immigrants.
In July 1999, after long-running protest actions, three trade unions - UGT,
CC.OO and UTS - reached agreement with Telefónica, the Spanish
telecommunications provider. The unions have agreed a redundancy procedure
affecting 10,800 workers and a new collective agreement that guarantees the
employment and working conditions of the rest of the employees.
The Confederation of Vocational Unions (Yrkesorganisasjonenes Sentralforbund,
YS) held its eighth national conference  on 15-16 June 1999. The YS chair,
Randi Bjørgen was re-elected for a second period, and at the top of the
agenda was the proposed creation of a new trade union confederation with the
Confederation of Academic and Professional Associations (Akademikernes
Fellesorganisasjon, AF). In her opening speech, Ms Bjørgen also announced
willingness for closer cooperation with the Norwegian Confederation of Trade
Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, LO). The Confederation of Norwegian
Business and Industry (Næringslivets Hovedorganisasjon, NHO) was heavily
criticised for allegedly undermining the legitimacy of the national system of
In a ruling issued on 8 June 1999, the Supreme Court (Højesteret) rejected
the argument that it should be illegal for trade unions and employers'
organisations to conclude closed-shop agreements. Under such agreements, in
order to be able to work at a certain workplace, an employee has to be a
member of the trade union with which the employer has concluded the
closed-shop agreement. The ruling came in case against the Danish Cooperative
Society (Foreningen af Danske Brugser, FDB), brought by Denmark's Free Trade
Union (Danmarks Frie Fagforening, DFF) on grounds of alleged violation of the
Council of Europe's Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and
Fundamental Freedoms by operating a closed-shop agreement. In its ruling, the
Supreme Court clearly rejected the idea that such a violation had occurred.
An analysis of labour disputes in 1998, published by the Office for National
Statistics in the June 1999 issue of /Labour Market Trends/, showed that
strike activity remains at its lowest level since records began in 1891. The
number of recorded disputes was the smallest ever and the number of workers
involved the fewest for 70 years, while the number of days not worked because
of industrial action was lower than in every previous year except 1997.
Stoppages in summer 1998 on the railways and the London Underground
(UK9806132N ) accounted for much of the latter figure.
Under a national health service reform approved in June 1999, the role and
work of Italian doctors is set to change. "Meritocracy" and training will
become the key factors in career advancement, while a single job grade for
senior doctors will be introduced, and doctors must choose whether or not to
work exclusively in the public sector.
In July 1999, the Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt)
published new figures on the development of annual incomes in the
manufacturing sector. According to the statistics, a full-time employee in
manufacturing earned an average of DEM 68,646 in 1998, including collectively
agreed annual income as well as other annual bonuses (Christmas bonus,
holiday bonus, annual profit-sharing payments etc). In comparison with the
previous year, average income increased by about 2.6% in 1998.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This report investigates the convergence of Member States in various dimensions of living conditions. Indicators are drawn from the European Quality of Life Surveys and other surveys. The analysis pays special attention to particular subgroups such as young people and women. The analysis also investigates the key drivers of convergence in living conditions.
This joint publication with the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents the findings from complementary research carried out simultaneously by both agencies on the socioeconomic impacts of climate policies and measures. While Eurofound focuses particularly on the distributional effects of these policies based on the experiences of Member States, the EEA analyses scientific research about the monetary and non-monetary social impacts of climate mitigation policies and its outcome in terms of inequalities.
This report addresses the main developments in statutory and collectively agreed working time regulation in 2019 and 2020. It covers several aspects of the duration of working time in the EU, such as information on maximum numbers of working days and weeks, normal working weeks and paid annual leave across the countries and within selected sectors. The report focuses on the education, health, transport, retail and public administration sectors, and provides accounts of major developments in working time regulation as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
This policy brief uses the data from the European Company Survey 2019 to examine the workplace practices of export-oriented companies and to analyse how these practices relate to outcomes. It also examines why these companies choose the workplace practices they adopt.
This report examines the labour market changes brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has affected sectors and occupations quite differently. It identifies those labour market categories most exposed to negative labour market outcomes. It analyses how differences in confinement and public health approaches may have contributed to different outcomes. It addresses previous assessments of the extent of occupational ‘teleworkability’ and of the sectoral impact of confinement rules. The report draws on EU Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) data for its analysis.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the audiovisual sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the audiovisual sector in the EU Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the live performance sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the live performance sector in the EU Member States.
This report analyses and compares the industrial relations landscape in a number of sectors and activities that form a public service cluster. The report draws on Eurofound’s recent representativeness studies investigating the following sectors: education, human health, central government administration and local and regional government sector (including social services).
Building on Eurofound’s previous research on youth, this report examines the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on young people, in particular their economic and social situation, with a focus on employment. It will also estimate how the NEET population – young people not in employment, education or training – has changed in size and composition over the last decade, and how the current crisis might affect this.
This report explores the impact of the use of digital technologies on work organisation and job quality, as well as the role of social dialogue and employee involvement in the digitisation process. The three technologies analysed are the Internet of Things, 3D printing, and virtual and augmented reality. The report draws on the views of experts and policy stakeholders and includes insights from 10 case studies of European establishments that have deployed one or more of the three digital technologies.