Publications

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  • Article
    9 marts 2014

    Bulgaria’s statutory national minimum wage is determined by a decree of the
    Council of Ministers, in consultation with the social partners. However,
    collective agreements at sectoral or company level may set a minimum wage
    that is higher than the legal minimum. Against a background of economic
    crisis, austerity measures and frozen wages, there have been few increases to
    the minimum wage in recent years. It was BGN 240 (€122) in 2009 and was BGN
    310 (€158) before this latest increase. Bulgaria remains the EU country
    with the lowest minimum wage level.

  • Article
    9 marts 2014

    Having successfully negotiated national interprofessional agreements on the
    ‘generation contract’ (*FR1209031I* [1]) in 2012, and on safeguarding
    jobs (*FR1302011I* [2]) on 11 January 2013, the social partners have
    completed the negotiation of a major reform of vocational training. Talks
    started in September 2013 (*FR1310011I* [3]) and concluded on 14 December.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/industrial-relations-undefined/generation-contract-to-benefit-young-and-older-workers
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/industrial-relations-undefined/landmark-agreement-paves-the-way-for-labour-market-reform
    [3] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/social-partners-begin-talks-on-vocational-training-reform

  • Article
    9 marts 2014

    The craft sector in Italy has a consolidated system of bilateral bodies,
    regulated by cross-industry agreements at national and regional levels. The
    sector is also regulated by sectoral collective agreements (*IT0812059I*
    [1]). This bilateral system has ensured income support benefits for craft
    workers suspended from work due to business crises.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/new-bargaining-system-agreed-for-craftworkers

  • Article
    9 marts 2014

    On 12 November 2013, four unions which represent social work employees signed
    an agreement to establish a new joint union committee. They are the
    Lithuanian Education Trade Union (LŠPS [1]), the Lithuanian Civil Servants
    Trade Union (LVTPS [2]), the Federation of Lithuanian Public Service Trade
    Unions (LVPPF), and the Care and Social Workers Trade Union (SSDPS
    ‘Solidarumas’). The committee’s task is to prepare and negotiate a
    sectoral collective agreement between social work employees from budgetary
    social service agencies and local authorities in the municipalities. The
    parties have agreed the following.

    [1] http://www.svietimoprofsajunga.lt
    [2] http://www.valstybestarnautojai.eu

  • Article
    9 marts 2014

    On 2 December 2013, a memorandum establishing the Lithuanian Business Council
    was signed by the four main national employers’ organisations: the
    Confederation of Lithuanian Industrialists (LPK [1]), the Investors’ Forum
    (IF [2]), the Lithuanian Business Employers Confederation (LVDK [3]) and the
    Association of Lithuanian Chambers of Commerce, Industry and Crafts (LPPARA
    [4]) signed .

    [1] http://www.lpk.lt/
    [2] http://www.investorsforum.lt
    [3] http://lvdk.eu/lt
    [4] http://www.chambers.lt

  • Article
    5 marts 2014

    In Norway, women make up roughly half of labour market participants. Although
    they generally have a higher level of educational attainment than men, they
    often find themselves in different segments of the labour market. This is
    often most clearly marked by a predominance of one gender or the other in
    different sectors and men’s dominance of leadership positions in the
    private sector.

  • Article
    5 marts 2014

    A new Danish study has investigated the effects of low levels of
    organisational justice at the workplace on the risk of depression (Grynderup,
    Mors, Hansen et al, 2013). A total of 4,237 public employees from 378 work
    units in Denmark were enrolled at baseline in 2007 from the Danish PRISME
    project, Psychological risk factors in the work environment and biological
    mechanism for the development of stress, burnout and depression (in Danish)
    [1].

    [1] http://www.arbejdsmiljoforskning.dk/da/projekter/psykiske-risikofaktorer-i-arbejdsmiljoeet-og-biologisk-mekanisme-for-udvikling-af-stress--udbraendt

  • Article
    5 marts 2014

    A study has been carried out in Portugal on the challenges faced by women
    shift workers trying to balance family and working life. The study, Shift
    work defined in the feminine: What challenges to work–life balance? (in
    Portuguese, 1.04 MB PDF) [1], was the basis for a dissertation for master’s
    degree in psychology.

    [1] http://repositorio.ucp.pt/bitstream/10400.14/9230/1/Disserta%C3%A7%C3%A3o_AnaOliveiraCosta.pdf

  • Article
    4 marts 2014

    The Government of Malta [1] commissioned former Health Minister John Dalli to
    compile a report on the management of the country’s main public hospital,
    Mater Dei [2], located in Msida. The report was published at the end of
    November 2013. Mr Dalli, a former EU Commissioner, was Minister of Health for
    a brief period from March 2008 to June 2009 under the previous administration
    led by the Partit Nazzjonalista (PN [3]), now in opposition after its
    electoral defeat at the polls in March 2013.

    [1] http://www.gov.mt/en/Government/Government%20of%20Malta/Pages/Government-of-Malta.aspx
    [2] https://ehealth.gov.mt/HealthPortal/health_institutions/hospital_services/mater_dei_hospital/mater_dei.aspx
    [3] http://www.pn.org.mt/

Series

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications