This report gives an overview of working conditions, job quality, workers’ health and job sustainability in the retail sector (NACE 47). It is based mostly on the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS), which gathers data on working conditions and the quality of work across 34 European countries. Additional information on the structural characteristics of the sector is derived from Eurostat data.
This report gives an overview of working conditions, job quality, workers’ health and job sustainability in the furniture sector (NACE 31). It is based mostly on the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS), which gathers data on working conditions and the quality of work across 34 European countries. Additional information on the structural characteristics of the sector is derived from Eurostat data. The fifth EWCS contains responses from 351 workers in the furniture sector and this fact sheet covers both the employed and the self-employed, comparing the situation in the sector to that in the EU28 as a whole.
In the present system of industrial relations in Cyprus, cross-sector collective bargaining does not exist. Collective bargaining is mainly decentralised, with the largest number of agreements concluded at enterprise level. Despite the numerical preponderance of the enterprise level, the sectoral level is seen as just as important, if not more important, as far as coverage is concerned. Overall, however, collective bargaining coverage has shown a tendency to fall.
The development of the Czech economy in recent years has confirmed its dependence on external conditions. The economic recession affected the Czech economy as late as 2009, when the GDP growth rate hit the negative value -4.5%. In 2009–2012 the imbalance in the labour market deepened and the registered unemployment rate rose dramatically to 8.0–9.0%. Relations among the social partners were far more consolidated than relations between the social partners and the government in 2008–2012.
In Germany, cross-sectoral collective bargaining takes place only for public employees at the federal or regional level. In 2011, some 54% and 37% of employees in western and eastern Germany respectively were, however, covered by a sectoral collective agreement. Peak-level employer organisations and trade union confederations coordinate the collective bargaining interests of their affiliates from different sectors and also represent them on cross-sectoral social dialogue issues on the national and European-level.
A study has looked at the risk of ‘burn-out’ among medical staff in
Belgian hospitals. The research was commissioned by the Belgian Federal
Public Service Employment, Labour and Social Dialogue  and the Belgian
Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment . The
study, which investigated both negative and positive aspects of healthcare
work, was carried out by Leuven University (KU Leuven ) and IDEWE , a
not-for-profit association which promotes well-being at work and its findings
were published in a report, An investigation into burn-out and enthusiasm
among doctors and nurses in Belgian hospitals (2.2 MB PDF) .
Bulgaria’s statutory national minimum wage is determined by a decree of the
Council of Ministers, in consultation with the social partners. However,
collective agreements at sectoral or company level may set a minimum wage
that is higher than the legal minimum. Against a background of economic
crisis, austerity measures and frozen wages, there have been few increases to
the minimum wage in recent years. It was BGN 240 (€122) in 2009 and was BGN
310 (€158) before this latest increase. Bulgaria remains the EU country
with the lowest minimum wage level.
The supermarket chain Mercadona  is one of the biggest in Spain. It has
stores in 46 provinces in 15 autonomous communities. It employs more than
70,000 employees, most of them with open-ended contracts.
Having successfully negotiated national interprofessional agreements on the
‘generation contract’ (*FR1209031I* ) in 2012, and on safeguarding
jobs (*FR1302011I* ) on 11 January 2013, the social partners have
completed the negotiation of a major reform of vocational training. Talks
started in September 2013 (*FR1310011I* ) and concluded on 14 December.
The craft sector in Italy has a consolidated system of bilateral bodies,
regulated by cross-industry agreements at national and regional levels. The
sector is also regulated by sectoral collective agreements (*IT0812059I*
). This bilateral system has ensured income support benefits for craft
workers suspended from work due to business crises.
The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the professional football sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the professional football sector in the EU Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in European sectoral social dialogue taking place at cross-sectoral level. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations at cross-sectoral level in the EU Member States.