Recent months have seen an improvement in economic outlook, a calming of the sovereign debt crisis and a stabilisation of unemployment rates. ECB President Mario Draghi was, however, cautious in his assessment of the emergent European recovery in January, calling it ‘modest’, ‘weak’ and ‘fragile’. This fourth issue for 2013 includes: Macroeconomic trends and prospects; Job creation and job loss at a glance (1/10/13 - 31/12/13); Sectoral distribution of job losses/job gains, and top five cases; Support instruments for restructuring in Greece; Cases in focus: RTVV, Spain - Liepajas Metalurgs, Latvia; Retail sector in focus – Amazon's expansion.
On 20 November 2013, the Trades Union Congress (TUC ) held a national day
of action to highlight the issue of blacklisting. Blacklisting is the
practice of illegally denying construction and other workers employment
because of their union activities which can include raising health and safety
concerns on building sites. The practice of blacklisting has been a
long-standing union grievance, especially since 2009 when a raid on an
organisation known as the Consulting Association revealed a database
containing personal information about more than 3,000 trade unionists and
others, which had been used for blacklisting purposes by 44 construction
companies (*UK1210019I* ).
Elections were held in Germany on 22 September 2013, with Chancellor Angela
Merkel’s party, the Christian Democrats (CDU ), winning by a clear
margin. The CDU secured 41.5% of the vote, a gain of 7.7 percentage points
compared to 2009. The Social Democrats (SPD ) were in second place with
25.7%, up 2.7 percentage points on 2009.
A recent study in Austria has shown that part-time workers have significantly
lower hourly wages than full-time workers. The study comes from the Federal
Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection (BMASK ). It is
based on an analysis of the Structure of Earnings Survey 2010 data, which is
conducted every four years by Statistics Austria .
In the parliamentary elections of 2013, Norway’s centre-left government was
replaced by a right-wing coalition of the Conservative Party (Hoyre ),
whose leader Erna Solberg is the new Prime Minister, and the Progress Party
(FrP ). The new government will seek support for their political platform
from two smaller parties, the Christian Democrats (KrF ) and the Liberal
Party (Venstre ). After the election, all four parties agreed the basic
guiding principles for a new government, although the two larger parties were
to be the coalition partners.
In early autumn 2013, the Confederation of Independent Trade Unions in
Bulgaria (CITUB ) carried out its Trade union barometer 2013 survey.
Against a background of severe political and socio-economic conditions, CITUB
wished to consult with its members in order to formulate its position.
In the Spanish electricity sector, collective bargaining takes place at company level. With regard to the social partner organisations, there is only one employer association which fulfils the criteria for inclusion in the study. It is affiliated to the European sectoral social partner EURELECTRIC, but it is not involved in collective bargaining. On the employee side, a pluralistic association system prevails. Accordingly, eight unions have been identified.
The first findings of the 2012 Skills and Employment Survey, published in
early 2013, present an up-to-date, authoritative picture of British
employees’ experiences and views regarding their current work situation.
The survey focuses on skill requirements, training, task discretion and job
control, job-related well-being, fears over job loss and unfair treatment at
work, and work intensification. In comparing the findings with those of the
2006 survey, the survey also shows the impact of the recession in both
private and public sectors.
Given that the Electricity Authority of Cyprus remains, in practice, the main employer in the entire electricity sector (including all of the sub-activities such as production, transmission, distribution and trade) industrial relations in the sector, especially concerning representation and collective bargaining, are characterised by high union density and 100% collective bargaining coverage.
The electricity sector in Estonia is very small, with the share of employment in 2011 at around 1.3% of total national employment. Despite the financial crisis, the number of employees has remained quite stable, although the number of enterprises in the sector has almost doubled, from 56 in 2005 to 92 in 2011. There are two trade unions (EEAÜL and KESA) and several employer associations. The sector is covered by enterprise-level collective agreements that cover most employees.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This report analyses how working conditions, job quality and working life outcomes – such as work–life balance, health and well-being, and sustainability of work – changed between February 2020 and spring 2021. Following up on responses to the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) 2020, it explores the differences between three distinct groups of workers: those teleworking during the COVID-19 pandemic, those who continued to work on their employers' premises as frontline staff, and those who were furloughed or worked reduced hours.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in European sectoral social dialogue taking place at cross-sectoral level. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations at cross-sectoral level in the EU Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the food and drinks sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the food and drinks sector in the EU Member States.
This report offers a backward look at the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the work and life of Europeans. The main focus is on Eurofound’s e-survey ‘ Living, working and COVID-19’ which was launched on 9 April 2020 just after the onset of the crisis. Through four rounds of the survey (two in 2020 and two in 2021), the range of questions changed to match the evolving situation and to understand the effects on the everyday lives of citizens and workers. A fifth round of the e-survey is planned for March–May 2022, with initial findings available in July.
This report explores the drivers of economic and social convergence in Europe, using a selected set of economic and social indicators to examine trends in the performance of individual Member States. It also investigates what role the Economic and Monetary Union plays in convergence, particularly in southern and eastern Member States. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on convergence is analysed and initial conclusions are drawn about the impact of EU recovery packages and their ability to prevent divergence.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the professional football sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the professional football sector in the EU Member States.
Building on previous work by Eurofound, this report will investigate intergenerational dynamics over time. During the 2008 double-dip recession, worrying intergenerational divides appeared in many Member States, and while some of the economic and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is universal, early data suggests disparities across demographic cohorts. Eurofound will examine how different age groups may have been affected in terms of their health, labour market participation, quality of life and financial needs, both in the short term and in the long term.
With the expansion of telework and different forms of hybrid work as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important for policymakers to consider both the opportunities and the negative consequences that may result. This report will explore potential scenarios for such work. In doing so, it will identify trends and drivers, and predict how they might interact to create particular outcomes and how they are likely to affect workers and businesses. Policy pointers will outline what could be done to facilitate desirable outcomes and to avoid undesirable ones.