On 20 November 2013, the Trades Union Congress (TUC ) held a national day
of action to highlight the issue of blacklisting. Blacklisting is the
practice of illegally denying construction and other workers employment
because of their union activities which can include raising health and safety
concerns on building sites. The practice of blacklisting has been a
long-standing union grievance, especially since 2009 when a raid on an
organisation known as the Consulting Association revealed a database
containing personal information about more than 3,000 trade unionists and
others, which had been used for blacklisting purposes by 44 construction
companies (*UK1210019I* ).
Elections were held in Germany on 22 September 2013, with Chancellor Angela
Merkel’s party, the Christian Democrats (CDU ), winning by a clear
margin. The CDU secured 41.5% of the vote, a gain of 7.7 percentage points
compared to 2009. The Social Democrats (SPD ) were in second place with
25.7%, up 2.7 percentage points on 2009.
A recent study in Austria has shown that part-time workers have significantly
lower hourly wages than full-time workers. The study comes from the Federal
Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection (BMASK ). It is
based on an analysis of the Structure of Earnings Survey 2010 data, which is
conducted every four years by Statistics Austria .
In the parliamentary elections of 2013, Norway’s centre-left government was
replaced by a right-wing coalition of the Conservative Party (Hoyre ),
whose leader Erna Solberg is the new Prime Minister, and the Progress Party
(FrP ). The new government will seek support for their political platform
from two smaller parties, the Christian Democrats (KrF ) and the Liberal
Party (Venstre ). After the election, all four parties agreed the basic
guiding principles for a new government, although the two larger parties were
to be the coalition partners.
In early autumn 2013, the Confederation of Independent Trade Unions in
Bulgaria (CITUB ) carried out its Trade union barometer 2013 survey.
Against a background of severe political and socio-economic conditions, CITUB
wished to consult with its members in order to formulate its position.
In the Spanish electricity sector, collective bargaining takes place at company level. With regard to the social partner organisations, there is only one employer association which fulfils the criteria for inclusion in the study. It is affiliated to the European sectoral social partner EURELECTRIC, but it is not involved in collective bargaining. On the employee side, a pluralistic association system prevails. Accordingly, eight unions have been identified.
The first findings of the 2012 Skills and Employment Survey, published in
early 2013, present an up-to-date, authoritative picture of British
employees’ experiences and views regarding their current work situation.
The survey focuses on skill requirements, training, task discretion and job
control, job-related well-being, fears over job loss and unfair treatment at
work, and work intensification. In comparing the findings with those of the
2006 survey, the survey also shows the impact of the recession in both
private and public sectors.
Given that the Electricity Authority of Cyprus remains, in practice, the main employer in the entire electricity sector (including all of the sub-activities such as production, transmission, distribution and trade) industrial relations in the sector, especially concerning representation and collective bargaining, are characterised by high union density and 100% collective bargaining coverage.
The electricity sector in Estonia is very small, with the share of employment in 2011 at around 1.3% of total national employment. Despite the financial crisis, the number of employees has remained quite stable, although the number of enterprises in the sector has almost doubled, from 56 in 2005 to 92 in 2011. There are two trade unions (EEAÜL and KESA) and several employer associations. The sector is covered by enterprise-level collective agreements that cover most employees.
The business landscape in Bulgaria’s electricity sector has been gradually changing since the beginning of 2000, due to restructuring and privatisation, and the commitment to follow the European energy policy, in developing new subsectors based on renewable energy sources, and taking into account climate change, energy efficiency and energy security. However, until now, renewable energy sources have not been broadly developed (except for the generation of hydropower).
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The urban-rural divide in EU countries has grown in recent years, and the depopulation of certain rural areas in favour of cities is a challenge when it comes to promoting economic development and maintaining social cohesion and convergence. Using data from Eurofound and Eurostat, this report will investigate the trends and drivers of the urban-rural divide, in various dimensions: economic and employment opportunities, access to services, living conditions and quality of life.
Adequate, affordable housing has become a matter of great concern, with an alarming number of Europeans with low or lower household incomes unable to access any, especially in capital cities. Housing was a key factor in people’s experience of the COVID-19 pandemic: its quality and level of safety significantly affected how lockdowns and social distancing measures were experienced, with those who had no access to quality housing at higher risk of deteriorating living conditions and well-being.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.