Since the onset of EU-driven competition, Ireland’s electricity sector has witnessed the growth of a range of producers and distributors, such as Bord Gáis Energy and Airtricity who, in recent years, have engaged in sometimes aggressive marketing campaigns based on providing cheaper electricity for customers. These campaigns were all launched before price restrictions, imposed by the Commission for Energy Regulation, were lifted from the largest state utility, ESB.
The electricity sector is relatively important in Denmark. It is subject to constant change because of the development of alternative energy sources and practices. The sector is known for its traditionally high representativeness of the social partners and a high level of collective agreement coverage.
The Greek electricity sector accounted for 0.6 % of total employment in the economy in 2012, with 22,911 employees (of which 15,117 are men and 7,794 women). This accounted for 0.9% of the total paid employees, of which 80% are public-sector employees. In Greece, collective agreements are at company level, as far as the main provider is concerned. In this case there is no difference between producers and distributors.
Since the beginning of the 1990s, the global workforce of the main electricity companies (EDF, ERDF and RTE EDF) has decreased, currently standing at about 105,000 in 2010. The sector’s workforce is organised within several trade unions, but mainly by the FNME-CGT which achieved a 46.23% share of the vote in the 2010 professional elections within the Electricity and Gas industries (IEG) sector. Two other unions are close to the threshold of 20% (FCE-CFDT and CFE-CGC).
It is not possible to determine the share of the Czech electricity sector as a proportion of GDP, since the Czech Statistical Office (ČSÚ) monitors only its parent sector, of electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply, which accounted for a 3.9% share in the Czech GDP in 2011. The share of sectoral employment as a percentage of total employment in the Czech economy is 0.8%. The number of business entities in the sector was almost 6,000, which is only 0.4 % of the number of all active economic entities in the Czech Republic.
This study provides information designed to aid sectoral social dialogue in the electricity sector. The study is divided into three parts: a summary of the sector’s economic and employment background; an analysis of the social partner organisations in all EU Member States, with emphasis on their membership, their role in collective bargaining, social dialogue and public policy, and their national and European affiliations; and finally, an analysis of the relevant European organisations, particularly their membership composition and their capacity to negotiate.
In 2012–2013, researchers carried out a study of labour dispute resolution
in Lithuania. The research was carried out by the Institute of Labour and
Social Research (ILSR ) of the Lithuanian Social Research Centre (LSRC
In 2011, Slovenia’s electricity sector and coal industry showed a combined profit of €109.7 million, with the bulk of this being contributed by electricity production companies Grup HSE (64.7%), Group GEN (11.3%), distribution companies (19.5%) and the transmission company ELES (3.7%). In Slovenia all forms of primary energy sources are used for the production of electricity (forming 67.9% of total production).
Austria’s electricity sector is made up of around 1,000 companies (including 200 large companies) with 22,000 employees. There is one voluntary employer organisation, the OEE, and three trade unions, the GPA-djp representing white-collar workers, the PRO-GE representing blue-collar workers and the GdG-KMSfB representing municipal workers. While the GPA-djp and the PRO-GE conclude two separate collective agreements with the OEE, the GdG-KMSfB concludes three company collective agreements, in two of which the OEE also acts as a representative for the respective companies.
The UK electricity industry is of growing importance in economic and employment terms. It is marked by levels of trade union membership and collective bargaining coverage that are very high by UK private sector standards. The industry’s two main employer bodies are strongly representative of the small number of major firms that dominate the electricity sector.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
With the expansion of telework and different forms of hybrid work as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important for policymakers to consider both the opportunities and the negative consequences that may result. This report will explore potential scenarios for such work. In doing so, it will identify trends and drivers, and predict how they might interact to create particular outcomes and how they are likely to affect workers and businesses. Policy pointers will outline what could be done to facilitate desirable outcomes and to avoid undesirable ones.
The urban-rural divide in EU countries has grown in recent years, and the depopulation of certain rural areas in favour of cities is a challenge when it comes to promoting economic development and maintaining social cohesion and convergence. Using data from Eurofound and Eurostat, this report will investigate the trends and drivers of the urban-rural divide, in various dimensions: economic and employment opportunities, access to services, living conditions and quality of life.
Building on previous work by Eurofound, this report will investigate intergenerational dynamics over time. During the 2008 double-dip recession, worrying intergenerational divides appeared in many Member States, and while some of the economic and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is universal, early data suggests disparities across demographic cohorts. Eurofound will examine how different age groups may have been affected in terms of their health, labour market participation, quality of life and financial needs, both in the short term and in the long term.
Adequate, affordable housing has become a matter of great concern, with an alarming number of Europeans with low or lower household incomes unable to access any, especially in capital cities. Housing was a key factor in people’s experience of the COVID-19 pandemic: its quality and level of safety significantly affected how lockdowns and social distancing measures were experienced, with those who had no access to quality housing at higher risk of deteriorating living conditions and well-being.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in European sectoral social dialogue taking place at cross-sectoral level. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations at cross-sectoral level in the EU Member States.