Elections were held in Germany on 22 September 2013, with Chancellor Angela
Merkel’s party, the Christian Democrats (CDU ), winning by a clear
margin. The CDU secured 41.5% of the vote, a gain of 7.7 percentage points
compared to 2009. The Social Democrats (SPD ) were in second place with
25.7%, up 2.7 percentage points on 2009.
A recent study in Austria has shown that part-time workers have significantly
lower hourly wages than full-time workers. The study comes from the Federal
Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection (BMASK ). It is
based on an analysis of the Structure of Earnings Survey 2010 data, which is
conducted every four years by Statistics Austria .
In the parliamentary elections of 2013, Norway’s centre-left government was
replaced by a right-wing coalition of the Conservative Party (Hoyre ),
whose leader Erna Solberg is the new Prime Minister, and the Progress Party
(FrP ). The new government will seek support for their political platform
from two smaller parties, the Christian Democrats (KrF ) and the Liberal
Party (Venstre ). After the election, all four parties agreed the basic
guiding principles for a new government, although the two larger parties were
to be the coalition partners.
In early autumn 2013, the Confederation of Independent Trade Unions in
Bulgaria (CITUB ) carried out its Trade union barometer 2013 survey.
Against a background of severe political and socio-economic conditions, CITUB
wished to consult with its members in order to formulate its position.
It is not possible to determine the share of the Czech electricity sector as a proportion of GDP, since the Czech Statistical Office (ČSÚ) monitors only its parent sector, of electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply, which accounted for a 3.9% share in the Czech GDP in 2011. The share of sectoral employment as a percentage of total employment in the Czech economy is 0.8%. The number of business entities in the sector was almost 6,000, which is only 0.4 % of the number of all active economic entities in the Czech Republic.
In the Spanish electricity sector, collective bargaining takes place at company level. With regard to the social partner organisations, there is only one employer association which fulfils the criteria for inclusion in the study. It is affiliated to the European sectoral social partner EURELECTRIC, but it is not involved in collective bargaining. On the employee side, a pluralistic association system prevails. Accordingly, eight unions have been identified.
The first findings of the 2012 Skills and Employment Survey, published in
early 2013, present an up-to-date, authoritative picture of British
employees’ experiences and views regarding their current work situation.
The survey focuses on skill requirements, training, task discretion and job
control, job-related well-being, fears over job loss and unfair treatment at
work, and work intensification. In comparing the findings with those of the
2006 survey, the survey also shows the impact of the recession in both
private and public sectors.
Given that the Electricity Authority of Cyprus remains, in practice, the main employer in the entire electricity sector (including all of the sub-activities such as production, transmission, distribution and trade) industrial relations in the sector, especially concerning representation and collective bargaining, are characterised by high union density and 100% collective bargaining coverage.
The electricity sector in Estonia is very small, with the share of employment in 2011 at around 1.3% of total national employment. Despite the financial crisis, the number of employees has remained quite stable, although the number of enterprises in the sector has almost doubled, from 56 in 2005 to 92 in 2011. There are two trade unions (EEAÜL and KESA) and several employer associations. The sector is covered by enterprise-level collective agreements that cover most employees.
The business landscape in Bulgaria’s electricity sector has been gradually changing since the beginning of 2000, due to restructuring and privatisation, and the commitment to follow the European energy policy, in developing new subsectors based on renewable energy sources, and taking into account climate change, energy efficiency and energy security. However, until now, renewable energy sources have not been broadly developed (except for the generation of hydropower).
The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
Building on previous work by Eurofound, this report will investigate intergenerational dynamics over time. During the 2008 double-dip recession, worrying intergenerational divides appeared in many Member States, and while some of the economic and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is universal, early data suggests disparities across demographic cohorts. Eurofound will examine how different age groups may have been affected in terms of their health, labour market participation, quality of life and financial needs, both in the short term and in the long term.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
Are the policies required to meet the commitments outlined under the EU’s plan for a green transition, the Fit-for-55 package, and the associated budgetary commitments – the Green New Deal – likely to lead to positive or negative employment outcomes by 2030? What types of jobs will be created or destroyed? Will shifts in employment be skewed towards the bottom, middle or top of the job–wage distribution? This report aims to provide answers to these questions, using macro-modelled estimates of the likely impacts of these policies on the structure of employment.
This report explores the potential socio-economic implications of the transition to a climate-neutral economy on different EU regions and groups of people. It adopts a foresight approach to envision potential actions that can be taken to shape the future. After consulting with stakeholders and experts, three scenarios were developed to consider emerging economic and social inequalities at EU and regional level. The report includes policy pointers which outline measures to be taken to achieve a just transition to a sustainable, climate-neutral economy where no one is left behind.
This report explores how environmental performance has converged – or diverged – among the EU Member States since the early 2000s. With environmental goals piling up at the EU level, is it reasonable to expect Member States to adhere to this emerging EU environmental aquis? And, just as importantly, can we expect Member States to reach these goals at the same time? This report attempts to provide answers to these and other questions high on the political agenda.
This report investigates the potential individual and societal impacts of labour market insecurity, focusing on workers with non-permanent contracts, part-time and self-employed workers, and workers who perceive their job as insecure. It explores the impact of labour market insecurities on health and well-being, social exclusion, trust in people and the perception of fairness, as well as trust in institutions. Policies aimed at reducing labour market instability following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic are also presented.
This report highlights the prevalence of psychosocial risks across countries, sectors and occupations during the later phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. It outlines the specific working conditions that can lead to work-related health problems. In particular, the report investigates the potential pitfalls related to the expansion of telework, the role of job and income insecurity as a psychosocial risk and the phenomenon of adverse social behaviour and discrimination at work. In addition, it offers policy pointers on tackling the increase in work absenteeism due to mental health problems.
This report – published every two years – covers important developments resulting from legislative reforms in collective bargaining at national or sectoral level in 2021 and 2022. It examines the average weekly working hours set by collective agreements, both across national economies and in five sectors: education, health, transport, retail and public administration.
This policy brief provides facts and figures on the working life and job quality of so-called ‘essential workers’ and is based on data from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) extraordinary edition 2021. It will define various subgroups of essential workers, describe the challenges they face and outline the type of responses provided, or being developed, to address those challenges.
This policy brief aims to contribute to the effective monitoring and evaluation of the European Child Guarantee. Progress at EU level is measured by a monitoring framework which monitors the key areas of the European Child Guarantee: early childhood education and care; education, including school-based activities and at least one healthy meal each school day; healthcare; healthy nutrition; and adequate housing. The policy brief explores trends and disparities in these areas using a convergence analysis, which tracks any disparities among EU Member States.