Following the financial collapse of Allied Irish Banks (AIB ) in 2009, the
Irish government took control and now owns 99.8% of the bank. In early 2012,
AIB and the Irish Bank Officials Association (IBOA ) entered a mediation
process at the Labour Relations Commission (LRC ).
Young people in Europe have been particularly affected by the recession: by
mid-2013, the unemployment rate among people aged 24 and under was over 23%.
A large proportion of workers in this age group are employed on temporary
rather than permanent contracts (42% compared to just 10% of workers aged
25–64). While temporary or fixed-term contracts can be a stepping stone in
the transition from education into work, they can also trap young people in
insecure jobs. This report from the European Restructuring Monitor is based
on data from correspondents in 28 EU Member States and Norway. It examines
the reasons for the growth in temporary employment contracts across the EU
and explores the situation regarding access to social protection for young
people on such contracts. It reviews the measures put in place in various
countries to regulate the use of these contracts – often with a view to
encouraging the transition to standard contracts – and finally presents the
opinions of the social partners on the issue.
The results of Spain’s latest Quarterly Survey on Labour Costs (in Spanish)
 have been released. The Spanish National Institute of Statistics (INE
) published the figures for the second quarter of 2013 in September.
A report, Health and Work Safety in Romanian Food Industry (1.7MB PDF, in
Romanian)  published by Romania’s National Federation of Food Industry
Trade Unions (Sindalimenta ), examines how companies and workers in the
sector have adapted to EU directives on occupational health and safety.
Malta has seen an influx of displaced immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa and
the Middle East over the past decade, substantially increasing the number of
vulnerable workers and some employers are willing to take advantage of their
A long-running dispute in Slovakia has centred on the extension of
multi-employer collective agreements, which is regulated by Act No. 2/1991
(in Slovakian, 164 KB PDF)  on collective bargaining. The subject has
caused friction between representatives of employers and the trade unions.
On 30 October 2013, partners in Germany’s Pact on Apprenticeships released
the latest figures on newly concluded vocational training contracts. During
the vocational guidance year 2012/2013, 482,400 newly concluded contracts
The term ‘blue-collar worker’ was introduced at the very beginning of the
20th century to describe manual workers. Two decades later, the term
‘white-collar worker’ appeared, describing employees who were engaged in
work requiring predominantly mental, rather than physical, effort. During the
last 20 years, establishing equality between these two statuses has been key
to Belgian industrial relations. In recent years, technological developments
and the evolution of job functions have ‘blurred’ the distinction between
blue- and white-collar workers that had previously been clearly defined.
Ten forms of precarious work in Bulgaria and the extent of their regulation
by national labour legislation have been analysed in a joint study by experts
from the Confederation of Independent Trade Unions in Bulgaria (CITUB )
and the Confederation of Labour Podkrepa (CL Podkrepa ).
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
With the expansion of telework and different forms of hybrid work as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important for policymakers to consider both the opportunities and the negative consequences that may result. This report will explore potential scenarios for such work. In doing so, it will identify trends and drivers, and predict how they might interact to create particular outcomes and how they are likely to affect workers and businesses. Policy pointers will outline what could be done to facilitate desirable outcomes and to avoid undesirable ones.
The urban-rural divide in EU countries has grown in recent years, and the depopulation of certain rural areas in favour of cities is a challenge when it comes to promoting economic development and maintaining social cohesion and convergence. Using data from Eurofound and Eurostat, this report will investigate the trends and drivers of the urban-rural divide, in various dimensions: economic and employment opportunities, access to services, living conditions and quality of life.
Adequate, affordable housing has become a matter of great concern, with an alarming number of Europeans with low or lower household incomes unable to access any, especially in capital cities. Housing was a key factor in people’s experience of the COVID-19 pandemic: its quality and level of safety significantly affected how lockdowns and social distancing measures were experienced, with those who had no access to quality housing at higher risk of deteriorating living conditions and well-being.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.