Young people in Europe have been particularly affected by the recession: by
mid-2013, the unemployment rate among people aged 24 and under was over 23%.
A large proportion of workers in this age group are employed on temporary
rather than permanent contracts (42% compared to just 10% of workers aged
25–64). While temporary or fixed-term contracts can be a stepping stone in
the transition from education into work, they can also trap young people in
insecure jobs. This report from the European Restructuring Monitor is based
on data from correspondents in 28 EU Member States and Norway. It examines
the reasons for the growth in temporary employment contracts across the EU
and explores the situation regarding access to social protection for young
people on such contracts. It reviews the measures put in place in various
countries to regulate the use of these contracts – often with a view to
encouraging the transition to standard contracts – and finally presents the
opinions of the social partners on the issue.
Following the financial collapse of Allied Irish Banks (AIB ) in 2009, the
Irish government took control and now owns 99.8% of the bank. In early 2012,
AIB and the Irish Bank Officials Association (IBOA ) entered a mediation
process at the Labour Relations Commission (LRC ).
The results of Spain’s latest Quarterly Survey on Labour Costs (in Spanish)
 have been released. The Spanish National Institute of Statistics (INE
) published the figures for the second quarter of 2013 in September.
A report, Health and Work Safety in Romanian Food Industry (1.7MB PDF, in
Romanian)  published by Romania’s National Federation of Food Industry
Trade Unions (Sindalimenta ), examines how companies and workers in the
sector have adapted to EU directives on occupational health and safety.
Malta has seen an influx of displaced immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa and
the Middle East over the past decade, substantially increasing the number of
vulnerable workers and some employers are willing to take advantage of their
A long-running dispute in Slovakia has centred on the extension of
multi-employer collective agreements, which is regulated by Act No. 2/1991
(in Slovakian, 164 KB PDF)  on collective bargaining. The subject has
caused friction between representatives of employers and the trade unions.
On 30 October 2013, partners in Germany’s Pact on Apprenticeships released
the latest figures on newly concluded vocational training contracts. During
the vocational guidance year 2012/2013, 482,400 newly concluded contracts
The term ‘blue-collar worker’ was introduced at the very beginning of the
20th century to describe manual workers. Two decades later, the term
‘white-collar worker’ appeared, describing employees who were engaged in
work requiring predominantly mental, rather than physical, effort. During the
last 20 years, establishing equality between these two statuses has been key
to Belgian industrial relations. In recent years, technological developments
and the evolution of job functions have ‘blurred’ the distinction between
blue- and white-collar workers that had previously been clearly defined.
Ten forms of precarious work in Bulgaria and the extent of their regulation
by national labour legislation have been analysed in a joint study by experts
from the Confederation of Independent Trade Unions in Bulgaria (CITUB )
and the Confederation of Labour Podkrepa (CL Podkrepa ).
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This report investigates the practical implementation of the European Works Council (EWC) Directive at company level. It explores the challenges faced by existing EWCs and provides examples of identified solutions and remaining issues from the point of view of both workers and management. The report looks at the way that EWCs meet the requirements of the EWC Directive in terms of establishing processes of information and consultation.
The hospital sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Hospitals and their workers are on the frontline in the fight against the virus, and they face a number of significant challenges in terms of resources, work organisation and working conditions. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
Given that compliance with lockdown measures is a first line of defence against COVID-19, maintaining trust in institutions is vital to ensure a coordinated, comprehensive and effective response to the pandemic. This report investigates developments in institutional and interpersonal trust across time, with a particular emphasis on the COVID-19 pandemic period and its impact. It examines the link between trust and discontent and investigates the effect of multidimensional inequalities as a driver of distrust.
This paper provides an analytical summary of state of the art academic and policy literature on the impact of climate change and policies to manage transitions to a carbon neutral economy on employment, working conditions, social dialogue and living conditions. It maps the key empirical findings around the impact of climate change and the green transitions on jobs, sectors, regions and countries in Europe, identifying the opportunities and risks that climate change policies bring to European labour markets.
Lockdown measures and the economic shift following the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a widening of the gender divide between men and women, putting at risk some of the gender equality gains that had been made in previous years. This report analyses changes in the distribution of paid and unpaid work, along with care and domestic responsibilities, among men and women during the crisis. It also explores the impact of the pandemic on the well-being of women and men.
The report provides an overview of the scale of teleworking before and during the COVID-19 crisis and gives an indication of ‘teleworkability’ across sectors and occupations. Building on previous Eurofound research on remote work, the report investigates the way businesses introduced and supported teleworking during the pandemic, as well as the experience of workers who were working from home during the crisis. The report also looks at developments in regulations related to telework in Member States and provides a review of stakeholders’ positions.
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have varied across sectors, occupations and categories of worker (for instance, according to gender, age or employment status). Hours worked have declined the most in sectors such as accommodation services and food and beverage services, and in occupations heavily reliant on in-person interaction, such as sales work. At the same time, it’s in these sectors that labour shortages have become increasingly evident as labour markets have begun to normalise.
The COVID-19 crisis has increased inequality between social groups in health, housing, employment, income and well-being. While a small part of society was able to hold on to or increase its wealth, other groups such as women, young people, older people, people with disabilities, low- and middle-income earners and those with young children were acutely affected by the pandemic. Drawing on current research on how to best measure multidimensional inequality, this report highlights recent trends in inequality in the context of the COVID-19 crisis.
The financial services sector is pertinent for studying the impact of digitalisation, as the main ‘raw material’ of the sector is digitally stored and processed. Process automation in the sector is likely to lead to significant job losses over the next 10 years, as the high street bank presence declines and the online bank presence increasingly accounts for a higher share of overall activity. Such trends have already been identified in bank restructurings captured in Eurofound’s European Restructuring Monitor.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the textiles and clothing sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.