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  • Foundation Focus
    20 januar 2014

    This issue of Foundation Focus looks at issues surrounding pay, wages and income in Europe in the face of sustained difficult economic circumstances. For example, what sort of hardship are ordinary people experiencing? Which workers are being most affected by wage cuts? Are wage cuts the best way to achieve competitiveness? Given the pressure on pension systems, how many Europeans are returning to work after retirement? European countries make extensive use of collectively agreed pay; is real pay matching or surpassing the agreements reached through social dialogue? And what would be the impact of a Europe-wide minimum wage? These are among the questions addressed in this issue.

  • Newsletter
    20 januar 2014

    This issue contains articles on: Findings in figures; Restructuring before and after the crisis; Industrial relations, working conditions in 2012; News in brief; and Publications.

  • Article
    19 januar 2014

    Poland’s unemployment rate has been rising since 2008, reaching 13% in November 2013. Yet significant cuts to the public employment service were introduced in the 2011 budget and, to reduce the country’s deficit, the Ministry of Finance froze the labour fund. The fund, financed largely by employers’ contributions, had been intended to support training and occupational counselling. As a result of social partners’ criticism, part of the fund was unfrozen in July 2012 by the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy which then put forward its proposals for the reform of the public employment services.

  • Article
    19 januar 2014

    The European Commission (EC [1]) has published a report, Women and men in
    leadership positions in the European Union 2013 (1.26 MB PDF) [2]. Drawing on
    data up to the end of June 2013, it reviews the current situation and reports
    on recent progress.


  • Article
    19 januar 2014

    Managers play an important role in the workplace, influencing attitudes,
    working conditions and productivity. Managers are often responsible for the
    working environment of their subordinates, but it can sometimes be unclear
    who takes responsibility for the working environment of the managers.

  • Article
    19 januar 2014

    The Estonian financial sector is strongly intertwined with the Scandinavian
    model, where trade unions are an important part of the sector. When the
    Scandinavian banks expanded to Estonia in the 1990s, unsuccessful attempts
    were made to form trade unions for workers in the sector. Employers now say
    that Estonia’s working culture more closely resembles the Scandinavian
    model, and this is believed to be one of the reasons why a new trade union,
    the Union of Estonian Financial Sector Employees (EFL), was formed on 11
    September 2013.

  • Article
    19 januar 2014

    The board of the Czech National Bank (ČNB [1]) has intervened in the
    country’s monetary policy. At its meeting on 7 November 2013, the board
    stepped in to devalue the country’s currency, the Crown, against the euro.


  • Article
    19 januar 2014

    On 5 November 2013, Malta’s budget for 2014 was presented to the Parliament
    of Malta [1]. It was the first budget presented by the Maltese Labour Party
    (Partit Laburista [2]) after its victory in the general election held in
    March 2013. The budget included a number of employment and labour market
    measures which by and large were welcomed by all the social partners.



  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications