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The French Labour Ministry’s annual report, Collective Bargaining 2012 (in
French, 4.3MB PDF) , was published on 2 July 2013 at the National
Commission of Collective Negotiations. The report shows that the number of
collective agreements has increased at all levels except the national
inter-professional level. The report also provides information on key issues
and areas of concern, data on the number of agreements concluded and
identifies trends in the issues addressed by collective bargaining.
The Draft law guaranteeing the future and justice of the pension system (in
French)  was presented to France’s Council of Ministers on September 18.
As requested by the President, François Hollande, it does not raise the
statutory retirement age because it would disadvantage those who started work
young, without going on to further education. Instead, financial balance in
the pension system will be restored by extending the contribution period in
both the private and public sectors.
The French vocational training system has been described by Labour Minister
Michael Sapin as being in ‘a time-worn state’. Companies with 10 or more
employees have, since the system was established1971, been compelled to
contribute a percentage of their payroll costs to the financing of vocational
training. As shown in the table, in 1991 this obligation was extended to
businesses with fewer than 10 employees.
In Hungary, teaching has never been a well-paid profession. There have been
no significant wage increases for some time, and in recent years working
conditions have deteriorated, especially for those new to the profession.
This is likely to be one of the reasons that many teachers move to new jobs,
either in Hungary or abroad. In its 2012–2013 programme, the government set
out a clear plan to increase teachers’ wages, improve working conditions
and improve the quality of education. Rózsa Hoffmann, Secretary of State for
The output of the wood and furniture sector, together with the fashion and
the food sectors, accounts for 6% of Italy’s manufacturing industry
production. Despite its significance to the economy, however, there is
currently a serious crisis in the industry and around 10,000 enterprises have
closed with the loss of 52,000 jobs.
Italy’s private sector is not covered by any specific legislation setting
out the criteria for representativeness required of social partners before
they may participate in collective bargaining. All the social partners, even
if they are small and not particularly representative, can sign collective
agreements if another organisation representing a sector or an enterprise is
willing to enter into an agreement with them.
The Works Councils Act (WOR ) was first enacted in 1950. There have been
seven major revisions of the act since it first came into force (*NL9709130F*
). An eighth revision has been made this year, 15 years after the last
significant changes, and came into force on 19 July 2013.
Trade union members at Metrorex , the company that manages the underground
train network in the Romanian capital Bucharest, have signed a new collective
agreement. Unions had threatened an all-out strike if the company’s
management failed to meet their demands.
For over a decade, there has been a shortage of doctors throughout Sweden,
particularly in the north of the country. According to a Swedish Medical
Association survey of staffing needs in primary care (in Swedish, 958KB PDF)
, an increase of 30% in the current number of doctors, or an extra 1,400,
is needed to meet accepted standards of medical care.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
As economies emerge from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, labour shortages are becoming increasingly evident. These include shortages exacerbated by the crisis in some sectors and professions where they had been endemic for some time. This report will look at measures implemented at national level to tackle labour shortages in the health, care and information and communications technology sectors, as well as those arising from the twin digital and green transitions.
With the expansion of telework and different forms of hybrid work as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important for policymakers to consider both the opportunities and the negative consequences that may result. This report will explore potential scenarios for such work. In doing so, it will identify trends and drivers, and predict how they might interact to create particular outcomes and how they are likely to affect workers and businesses. Policy pointers will outline what could be done to facilitate desirable outcomes and to avoid undesirable ones.
The urban-rural divide in EU countries has grown in recent years, and the depopulation of certain rural areas in favour of cities is a challenge when it comes to promoting economic development and maintaining social cohesion and convergence. Using data from Eurofound and Eurostat, this report will investigate the trends and drivers of the urban-rural divide, in various dimensions: economic and employment opportunities, access to services, living conditions and quality of life.
Building on previous work by Eurofound, this report will investigate intergenerational dynamics over time. During the 2008 double-dip recession, worrying intergenerational divides appeared in many Member States, and while some of the economic and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is universal, early data suggests disparities across demographic cohorts. Eurofound will examine how different age groups may have been affected in terms of their health, labour market participation, quality of life and financial needs, both in the short term and in the long term.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
Adequate, affordable housing has become a matter of great concern, with an alarming number of Europeans with low or lower household incomes unable to access any, especially in capital cities. Housing was a key factor in people’s experience of the COVID-19 pandemic: its quality and level of safety significantly affected how lockdowns and social distancing measures were experienced, with those who had no access to quality housing at higher risk of deteriorating living conditions and well-being.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in European sectoral social dialogue taking place at cross-sectoral level. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations at cross-sectoral level in the EU Member States.