The French Labour Ministry’s annual report, Collective Bargaining 2012 (in
French, 4.3MB PDF) , was published on 2 July 2013 at the National
Commission of Collective Negotiations. The report shows that the number of
collective agreements has increased at all levels except the national
inter-professional level. The report also provides information on key issues
and areas of concern, data on the number of agreements concluded and
identifies trends in the issues addressed by collective bargaining.
The Draft law guaranteeing the future and justice of the pension system (in
French)  was presented to France’s Council of Ministers on September 18.
As requested by the President, François Hollande, it does not raise the
statutory retirement age because it would disadvantage those who started work
young, without going on to further education. Instead, financial balance in
the pension system will be restored by extending the contribution period in
both the private and public sectors.
The French vocational training system has been described by Labour Minister
Michael Sapin as being in ‘a time-worn state’. Companies with 10 or more
employees have, since the system was established1971, been compelled to
contribute a percentage of their payroll costs to the financing of vocational
training. As shown in the table, in 1991 this obligation was extended to
businesses with fewer than 10 employees.
In Hungary, teaching has never been a well-paid profession. There have been
no significant wage increases for some time, and in recent years working
conditions have deteriorated, especially for those new to the profession.
This is likely to be one of the reasons that many teachers move to new jobs,
either in Hungary or abroad. In its 2012–2013 programme, the government set
out a clear plan to increase teachers’ wages, improve working conditions
and improve the quality of education. Rózsa Hoffmann, Secretary of State for
The output of the wood and furniture sector, together with the fashion and
the food sectors, accounts for 6% of Italy’s manufacturing industry
production. Despite its significance to the economy, however, there is
currently a serious crisis in the industry and around 10,000 enterprises have
closed with the loss of 52,000 jobs.
Italy’s private sector is not covered by any specific legislation setting
out the criteria for representativeness required of social partners before
they may participate in collective bargaining. All the social partners, even
if they are small and not particularly representative, can sign collective
agreements if another organisation representing a sector or an enterprise is
willing to enter into an agreement with them.
The Works Councils Act (WOR ) was first enacted in 1950. There have been
seven major revisions of the act since it first came into force (*NL9709130F*
). An eighth revision has been made this year, 15 years after the last
significant changes, and came into force on 19 July 2013.
Trade union members at Metrorex , the company that manages the underground
train network in the Romanian capital Bucharest, have signed a new collective
agreement. Unions had threatened an all-out strike if the company’s
management failed to meet their demands.
For over a decade, there has been a shortage of doctors throughout Sweden,
particularly in the north of the country. According to a Swedish Medical
Association survey of staffing needs in primary care (in Swedish, 958KB PDF)
, an increase of 30% in the current number of doctors, or an extra 1,400,
is needed to meet accepted standards of medical care.
Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
Building on previous work by Eurofound, this report will investigate intergenerational dynamics over time. During the 2008 double-dip recession, worrying intergenerational divides appeared in many Member States, and while some of the economic and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is universal, early data suggests disparities across demographic cohorts. Eurofound will examine how different age groups may have been affected in terms of their health, labour market participation, quality of life and financial needs, both in the short term and in the long term.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
Are the policies required to meet the commitments outlined under the EU’s plan for a green transition, the Fit-for-55 package, and the associated budgetary commitments – the Green New Deal – likely to lead to positive or negative employment outcomes by 2030? What types of jobs will be created or destroyed? Will shifts in employment be skewed towards the bottom, middle or top of the job–wage distribution? This report aims to provide answers to these questions, using macro-modelled estimates of the likely impacts of these policies on the structure of employment.
This report explores the potential socio-economic implications of the transition to a climate-neutral economy on different EU regions and groups of people. It adopts a foresight approach to envision potential actions that can be taken to shape the future. After consulting with stakeholders and experts, three scenarios were developed to consider emerging economic and social inequalities at EU and regional level. The report includes policy pointers which outline measures to be taken to achieve a just transition to a sustainable, climate-neutral economy where no one is left behind.
This report explores how environmental performance has converged – or diverged – among the EU Member States since the early 2000s. With environmental goals piling up at the EU level, is it reasonable to expect Member States to adhere to this emerging EU environmental aquis? And, just as importantly, can we expect Member States to reach these goals at the same time? This report attempts to provide answers to these and other questions high on the political agenda.
This report investigates the potential individual and societal impacts of labour market insecurity, focusing on workers with non-permanent contracts, part-time and self-employed workers, and workers who perceive their job as insecure. It explores the impact of labour market insecurities on health and well-being, social exclusion, trust in people and the perception of fairness, as well as trust in institutions. Policies aimed at reducing labour market instability following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic are also presented.
This report highlights the prevalence of psychosocial risks across countries, sectors and occupations during the later phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. It outlines the specific working conditions that can lead to work-related health problems. In particular, the report investigates the potential pitfalls related to the expansion of telework, the role of job and income insecurity as a psychosocial risk and the phenomenon of adverse social behaviour and discrimination at work. In addition, it offers policy pointers on tackling the increase in work absenteeism due to mental health problems.
This report – published every two years – covers important developments resulting from legislative reforms in collective bargaining at national or sectoral level in 2021 and 2022. It examines the average weekly working hours set by collective agreements, both across national economies and in five sectors: education, health, transport, retail and public administration.
This policy brief provides facts and figures on the working life and job quality of so-called ‘essential workers’ and is based on data from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) extraordinary edition 2021. It will define various subgroups of essential workers, describe the challenges they face and outline the type of responses provided, or being developed, to address those challenges.
This policy brief aims to contribute to the effective monitoring and evaluation of the European Child Guarantee. Progress at EU level is measured by a monitoring framework which monitors the key areas of the European Child Guarantee: early childhood education and care; education, including school-based activities and at least one healthy meal each school day; healthcare; healthy nutrition; and adequate housing. The policy brief explores trends and disparities in these areas using a convergence analysis, which tracks any disparities among EU Member States.