Eurofound’s European Restructuring Monitor database reveals the impact of the energy crisis on employment in the EU. Following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, energy prices have hit record highs. The European Commission imposed sanctions and limitations on the import of oil and gas from Russia, which has reacted by reneging on supply commitments to many Member States. Compared to other countries, market disruption has been especially acute in the EU, given the bloc’s overdependence on Russian energy supply.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the electricity sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
Tässä raportissa analysoidaan työmarkkinavuoropuhelun ja työehtosopimusneuvottelujen roolia covid-19-pandemiasta aiheutuneiden haasteiden ratkaisemisessa siviili-ilmailualalla. Työmarkkinaosapuolet osallistuivat eri Euroopan maissa eri tavoin toimenpiteisiin, joita otettiin käyttöön pandemian kielteisten vaikutusten vähentämiseksi. Useimmissa maissa työmarkkinavuoropuhelulla ja työehtosopimusneuvotteluilla oli merkittävä rooli, mutta toisissa rooli oli pienempi.
Tässä raportissa analysoidaan työmarkkinavuoropuhelun ja työehtosopimusneuvottelujen roolia niiden haasteiden käsittelyssä, joita covid-19-pandemia sai aikaan tai pahensi sairaanhoitoalalla. Siinä selvitetään myös, mukautettiinko työmarkkinavuoropuhelun ja työehtosopimusneuvottelujen olemassa olleita prosesseja kansallisella tasolla näihin haasteisiin vastaamiseksi.
Tämä raportti laaditaan osana Euroopan komission Eurofoundille toimeksiantamaa kolmivuotista pilottihanketta (2021–2023) ”Vähimmäispalkan rooli yleisen työvoimatakuun perustamisessa”. Siinä keskitytään hankkeen moduuliin 3, jossa tutkitaan itsenäisten ammatinharjoittajien vähimmäispalkkoja ja muita palkkiomuotoja. Joidenkin itsenäisten ammatinharjoittajaryhmien hankalan tilanteen vuoksi jotkin jäsenvaltiot ovat ottaneet käyttöön tai käyvät parhaillaan keskusteluja joidenkin lakisääteisten vähimmäispalkkojen ehdottamisesta tietyille itsenäisten ammatinharjoittajien ryhmille.
Hallitusten vuonna 2020 covid-19-pandemian hallitsemiseksi käyttöön ottamat tiukat kansanterveysrajoitukset muuttivat äkillisesti työelämää ja muokkasivat sitä edelleen kahden seuraavan vuoden ajan. Maaliskuun ja marraskuun 2021 välisenä aikana puhelinkyselynä toteutetussa Euroopan työolotutkimuksessa (European Working Conditions Telephone Survey, EWCTS) tehtiin yli 70 000 haastattelua 36 maassa. Kyseessä on korkealaatuinen todennäköisyyksiin perustuva tutkimus. Tavoitteena oli antaa yksityiskohtainen kuva eurooppalaisten työelämästä kyseisenä poikkeuksellisena aikana.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the Food and drink sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of Eurofound’s studies on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in the EU Member States.
Raportissa tarkastellaan, miten kansalaisten luottamus instituutioihin – muun muassa kansallisiin hallituksiin, EU:hun, tiedeyhteisöön ja tiedotusvälineisiin – kehittyi covid-19-pandemian aikana vuosina 2020 ja 2021. Siinä analysoidaan tiedotusvälineiden roolia, erityisesti sosiaalisen median käytön ja luottamuksen välistä suhdetta sekä väärän tiedon (virheellisen tai harhaanjohtavan tiedon) ja disinformaation (vilpillisen tiedon tahallisen levittämisen) vaikutusta kriisiaikana.
Instituutioiden laatu on EU:ssa keskeinen osa ylöspäin tapahtuvan taloudellisen ja sosiaalisen lähentymisen saavuttamista. Sillä on tärkeä rooli talouskasvussa, ulkomaisten investointien houkuttelemisessa, toimintalinjojen ja uudistusten toteuttamisen varmistamisessa sekä EU-varojen saamisessa. Julkisten laitosten tarkoituksenmukaisuus on nyt erityisen tärkeää, kun Next Generation EU -ohjelmaa toteutetaan, sillä heikko institutionaalinen laatu voi estää rahoituksen saamisen ja heikentää itse ohjelman vaikuttavuutta.
The EU Presidency of Czechia organised a high-level conference in October 2022 on ‘Tackling energy poverty: EU approach & sharing best practices’. The event aimed to bring different actors together in order to strengthen the dialogue on possible solutions on how to further tackle energy poverty in the EU. This background paper, prepared at the request of the Czech Presidency, aims to contribute to the debate.
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Building on previous work by Eurofound, this report will investigate intergenerational dynamics over time. During the 2008 double-dip recession, worrying intergenerational divides appeared in many Member States, and while some of the economic and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is universal, early data suggests disparities across demographic cohorts. Eurofound will examine how different age groups may have been affected in terms of their health, labour market participation, quality of life and financial needs, both in the short term and in the long term.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
Are the policies required to meet the commitments outlined under the EU’s plan for a green transition, the Fit-for-55 package, and the associated budgetary commitments – the Green New Deal – likely to lead to positive or negative employment outcomes by 2030? What types of jobs will be created or destroyed? Will shifts in employment be skewed towards the bottom, middle or top of the job–wage distribution? This report aims to provide answers to these questions, using macro-modelled estimates of the likely impacts of these policies on the structure of employment.
This report explores the potential socio-economic implications of the transition to a climate-neutral economy on different EU regions and groups of people. It adopts a foresight approach to envision potential actions that can be taken to shape the future. After consulting with stakeholders and experts, three scenarios were developed to consider emerging economic and social inequalities at EU and regional level. The report includes policy pointers which outline measures to be taken to achieve a just transition to a sustainable, climate-neutral economy where no one is left behind.
This report explores how environmental performance has converged – or diverged – among the EU Member States since the early 2000s. With environmental goals piling up at the EU level, is it reasonable to expect Member States to adhere to this emerging EU environmental aquis? And, just as importantly, can we expect Member States to reach these goals at the same time? This report attempts to provide answers to these and other questions high on the political agenda.
This report investigates the potential individual and societal impacts of labour market insecurity, focusing on workers with non-permanent contracts, part-time and self-employed workers, and workers who perceive their job as insecure. It explores the impact of labour market insecurities on health and well-being, social exclusion, trust in people and the perception of fairness, as well as trust in institutions. Policies aimed at reducing labour market instability following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic are also presented.
This report highlights the prevalence of psychosocial risks across countries, sectors and occupations during the later phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. It outlines the specific working conditions that can lead to work-related health problems. In particular, the report investigates the potential pitfalls related to the expansion of telework, the role of job and income insecurity as a psychosocial risk and the phenomenon of adverse social behaviour and discrimination at work. In addition, it offers policy pointers on tackling the increase in work absenteeism due to mental health problems.
This report – published every two years – covers important developments resulting from legislative reforms in collective bargaining at national or sectoral level in 2021 and 2022. It examines the average weekly working hours set by collective agreements, both across national economies and in five sectors: education, health, transport, retail and public administration.
This policy brief provides facts and figures on the working life and job quality of so-called ‘essential workers’ and is based on data from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) extraordinary edition 2021. It will define various subgroups of essential workers, describe the challenges they face and outline the type of responses provided, or being developed, to address those challenges.
This policy brief aims to contribute to the effective monitoring and evaluation of the European Child Guarantee. Progress at EU level is measured by a monitoring framework which monitors the key areas of the European Child Guarantee: early childhood education and care; education, including school-based activities and at least one healthy meal each school day; healthcare; healthy nutrition; and adequate housing. The policy brief explores trends and disparities in these areas using a convergence analysis, which tracks any disparities among EU Member States.