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  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    On 14 July 1999, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled A
    concerted strategy for modernising social protection [1] (COM(99)347 final).
    The Communication emphasises the key role played by social protection systems
    in supporting public health and well-being and in redistributing wealth. It
    is argued that, without social security transfers, nearly 40% of EU
    households would be living in relative poverty (compared with the actual rate
    of 17%). Spending on social protection accounts for an average of 28.5% of


  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    The integrated police law adopted in December 1998, based on agreement
    between Belgium's main political parties, provides for the overhaul of the
    various law-and-order forces (the gendarmerie, criminal-investigation
    department and municipal police), establishing federal and local levels and
    defining a new unified statute for the entire force. Because of the
    importance of the issues at stake, the police reform has caused an
    unprecedented labour dispute during 1999 between police unions and the
    Interior Ministry, leading to a breakdown in negotiations and highlighting
    the complexity of police trade unionism in Belgium.

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    On 20 July 1999, the national council of the Confederation of British
    Industry (CBI) adopted a policy statement [1] reaffirming that the CBI is "in
    favour in principle of UK entry into European Economic and Monetary Union
    once key conditions for success are in place". The CBI believes that UK
    membership of EMU"has the potential to deliver significant benefits to the UK
    economy", but that further progress is needed towards "sound fiscal
    conditions in all major euro-zone countries", together with a shift in labour
    market policies towards more flexibility. The new policy statement is the
    culmination of a three-month consultation process involving voting on CBI
    regional and national committees and a survey of wider membership opinion
    carried out by polling organisation MORI.


  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    At a conference on 10 June 1999, Hans Skov Christensen, the managing director
    of the Confederation of Danish Industries (Dansk Industri, DI) presented a
    proposal for a new system of collective bargaining in Denmark. "It has to be
    a marked exception that a dispute breaks out, and if it occurs it has to be a
    logical consequence of the system's rules", said Mr Christensen. While,
    undoubtedly, disputes could still occur, the possibility of traditional
    industrial action would not not be the basis for all bargaining. Such action,
    according to DI, belongs to the past. Accordingly, DI proposes that the
    current automatic process, whereby notice of an impending dispute is issued
    during the bargaining round, be reconsidered.

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    In summer 1999, at the half-way point of the Spanish social partners'
    four-year pact for employment stability, later endorsed by parliament, the
    parties have evaluated its results. After two years, employment - and
    especially stable employment - has increased significantly. However, there
    has been no substantial decrease in the level of temporary employment and
    contract turnover continues to increase.

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    In July 1999, the joint employer-trade union administrative board of France's
    National Sickness Insurance Fund (CNAM) approved, by a large majority, a
    strategic reform plan. This package of measures is designed to reduce
    spending and improve the quality of healthcare. CNAM hopes that the
    government will give legislative effect to the plan.

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    In June 1999, the Greek General Confederation of Labour (GSEE) expressed its
    total opposition to proposals from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to
    reduce the wages of new entrants to the labour market and to cut labour

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    The total number of requests to terminate employment contracts declined in
    the Netherlands in 1998, according to the Annual Report on termination
    statistics, issued in summer 1999. However, the number of requests related to
    occupational disability has increased.

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    An informal Labour and Social Affairs Council of Ministers meeting was held
    under the Finnish Presidency in Oulu, Finland from 8 to 10 July 1999, with
    the participation of the European-level social partners and the European
    Parliament. In line with the priorities of Finnish labour market policy in
    recent years (FI9708125F [1]), the Finnish government - which took over the
    EU Presidency in July 1999 - was keen to shift the focus of labour market
    policy away from youth unemployment towards the problems facing older
    workers. Ministers expressed concern at the lack of older workers in the
    labour market.



  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications