COVID-19

Leve- og arbejdsvilkår og covid-19

Report
Opdateret
6 november 2020
Udgivet
28 september 2020
pdf
Formats and languages

Væsentlige konklusioner

  • Mennesker over hele Europa har oplevet en forbedring i deres situation generelt efter nedlukningenog rapporterer om et stigende antal arbejdstimer og lavere jobusikkerhed i juli sammenlignet med april. Tallene afslører imidlertid store uligheder mellem specifikke grupper i EU.
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  • Mennesker over hele Europa har oplevet en forbedring i deres situation generelt efter nedlukningenog rapporterer om et stigende antal arbejdstimer og lavere jobusikkerhed i juli sammenlignet med april. Tallene afslører imidlertid store uligheder mellem specifikke grupper i EU.
  • Til trods for at mange lande hurtigt indførte foranstaltninger til støtte for dem, der mistede deres job, modtog godt halvdelen af de arbejdsløse respondenter ikke nogen offentlig økonomisk støtte efter covid-19-udbruddet, hvilket har ført til, at mange mennesker er blevet stærkt afhængige af uformel støtte. Antallet af personer, der berettede at have svært ved at få enderne til at mødes, var højest blandt de arbejdsløse respondenter, og i juli var dette tal dobbelt så stort som det tilsvarende tal for husholdninger i arbejde.
  • Det er de unge, der fremstår som nogle af de største tabere efter nedlukningen, og som, sammen med arbejdsløse, melder om det laveste trivselsniveau på trods af en vis forbedring siden pandemiens start. Livstilfredsheden og optimismen er steget siden april, men mange unge føler sig stadig ikke som en del af samfundet og er fortsat den gruppe, der har den største risiko for depression, hvilket viser, hvordan restriktionerne under nedlukningen har ramt denne gruppe hårdere.
  • Også mange kvinder er fortsat påvirket uforholdsmæssigt meget, og er fortsat mindre optimistiske med hensyn til deres fremtid end mænd – og denne kløft er blevet udvidet yderligere fra april til juli. Pandemien har også påvirket balancen mellem kvinders arbejdsliv og privatliv mere end for mænd, hvor kvinder i større grad har måttet gå ned i arbejdstid, samtidig med at unge kvinder har større risiko for at miste deres job end mænd. Navnlig er kvinders omsorgsbyrde øget i forbindelse med pandemien.
  • Tilliden til EU steg i juli, mens tilliden til de nationale regeringer faldt. Den største stigning fandt sted i Italien og Spanien, som blev hårdt ramt af pandemien. Tilliden til både de nationale regeringer og EU er betydeligt højere blandt EU-borgere, der har modtaget økonomisk støtte under pandemien.
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Resumé

This report presents the findings of the Living, working and COVID-19 e-survey, carried out by Eurofound to capture the far-reaching implications of the pandemic for the way people live and work across Europe. The survey was fielded online, among respondents who were reached via Eurofound’Read more

This report presents the findings of the Living, working and COVID-19 e-survey, carried out by Eurofound to capture the far-reaching implications of the pandemic for the way people live and work across Europe. The survey was fielded online, among respondents who were reached via Eurofound’s stakeholders and social media advertising. Two rounds of the e-survey have been carried out to date: one in April, when most Member States were in lockdown, and one in July, when society and economies were slowly re-opening.

The findings of the e-survey from the first round reflected widespread emotional distress, financial concern and low levels of trust in institutions. Levels of concern abated somewhat in the second round, particularly among groups of respondents who were benefiting from support measures implemented during the pandemic. At the same time, the results underline stark differences between countries and between socioeconomic groups that point to growing inequalities.

The results confirm the upsurge in teleworking across all countries during the COVID-19 pandemic that has been documented elsewhere, and the report explores what this means for work–life balance and elements of job quality. 

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Formats and languages

  • Rapport

    Antal sider: 
    80
    Referencenr.: 
    EF20059
    ISBN: 
    978-92-897-2117-2
    Katalognr.: 
    TJ-01-20-552-EN-N
    DOI: 
    10.2806/467608
    Catalogue info

    Leve- og arbejdsvilkår og covid-19

    Formater

    Citér denne publikation: 

    When citing this report, please use the following wording: Eurofound (2020), Living, working and COVID-19, COVID-19 series, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

  • Working papers

    Related working papers

  • Data

    Explore the dataset for each round of the survey.

    The data cover a range of topics under four main headings: quality of life and quality of society, work and teleworking, the financial situation and security of respondents, as well as the quality of public services during COVID-19. 

    The following list of tables and graphs can be found in the report. 

    List of tables

    Table 1: Proportion reporting arrears in April and July, by employment status, EU27 (%)
    Table 2: Proportion of employees, by location of paid work during COVID pandemic, EU27 (%)
    Table 3: Employment status before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, EU27 (%)       
    Table 4: Trust in institutions (mean scores), EU27 (scale 1 to 10)      

    Table A1: Employment status of respondents, current and prior to COVID-19 (weighted and unweighted count), EU27 (%)       
    Table A2: Financial situation in July compared to three months previously by country (in percentage point change since April), EU27 (%)             
    Table A3: Summary indicator of work–life balance

    List of graphs          

    Figure 1: Respondents who became unemployed since the onset of the pandemic, by country (%)
    Figure 2: Respondents who became unemployed since the onset of the pandemic, by age, gender, employment status and education, EU27 (%)
    Figure 3: Change in working hours, as reported in July, by country (%)
    Figure 4: Decrease in working hours, by sector, EU27 (%)
    Figure 5: Likelihood of losing one’s job in next three months (very likely and rather likely), by country (%)
    Figure 6: Likelihood of losing one’s job in next three months, by type of contract, EU27 (%)
    Figure 7: Proportion of self-employed respondents with arrears, by state aid support, EU27 (%)
    Figure 8: Ability to maintain standard of living with savings in July, by country, EU27 (%)
    Figure 9: Respondents reporting that their financial situation will get worse in three months' time, by country, EU27 (%)
    Figure 10: Respondents expecting their financial situation to be better in three months' time, by country, EU27 (%)
    Figure 11: Changes in work–life balance at EU level, EU27 (%)
    Figure 12: Work–life balance, by gender and age of children in July, EU27 (%)
    Figure 13: Differences in hours per week spent on childcare or housework in July, by gender, EU27 (%)
    Figure 14: WHO-5 mental well-being index (mean scores by country)
    Figure 15: Feeling tense in the previous two weeks (all or most of the time), by age, EU27 (%)
    Figure 16: Life satisfaction in April and July 2020 (mean scores by country)
    Figure 17: Optimism about one’s future in April and July, by country, EU27 (%)
    Figure 18: Proportion of respondents exhibiting low resilience, EU27 (%)  
    Figure 19: Responses to statements on well-being, by age group, EU27 (%)
    Figure 20: Working from home during COVID-19, EU27 (%)
    Figure 21: Employees’ place of work during the pandemic, by country, EU27 (%)
    Figure 22: Working during one’s free time during COVID-19, by work location, EU27 (%)
    Figure 23: Preference regarding regularity of working from home if there were no COVID-19 restrictions, by teleworking status, EU27 (%)  
    Figure 24: Selected job quality indicators (employees), during COVID-19, EU27 (%)  
    Figure 25: Proportion of employees feeling they are doing a useful job, EU27 (%)  
    Figure 26: Employees reporting high quantitative demands, by gender, age, place of work and sector, EU27 (%)
    Figure 27: Employees reporting high quantitative demands, by country, EU27 (%)
    Figure 28: Employees feeling emotionally drained by work, country, EU27 (%) 
    Figure 29: Employees feeling emotionally drained by work, sex, age and sector, EU27 (%)
    Figure 30: Employees reporting they received help and support from their colleagues and managers, EU27 (%)
    Figure 31: Employees reporting feeling isolated while working during the pandemic, EU27 (%)           
    Figure 32: Employees reporting feeling exhausted at the end of the working day, EU27 (%)   
    Figure 33: Employees feeling their job puts them at risk of contracting COVID-19, by sector, EU27 (%)     
    Figure 34: Provision of PPE to employees required to wear it in their job, by sector, EU27 (%)                 
    Figure 35: Provision of PPE to employees required to wear it in their job in a selection of Member States, by country, EU27 (%)                 
    Figure 36: Decrease in working hours as a consequence of COVID-19, EU27 (%)
    Figure 37: Innovations introduced to mitigate the impact of COVID-19, EU27 (%)
    Figure 38: Changes in the assessment of household financial situation between April and July 2020, EU27 (%)
    Figure 39: Job quality for self-employed respondents, EU27 (%)       
    Figure 40: Health and safety among self-employed respondents, EU27 (%)
    Figure 41: Forms of support received since the outbreak of the pandemic, EU27 (%)       
    Figure 42: Financial support received, by employment status, EU27 (%)       
    Figure 43: Usefulness of the support received for one’s financial situation, EU27 (%)                               
    Figure 44: Optimism and material hardship, by receipt of financial support, EU27 (%)                                    
    Figure 45: Trust in national government (mean scores by country)
    Figure 46: Trust in the European Union (mean scores by country)
    Figure 47: Trust in national government and EU, by public support received (April and July 2020), EU27 (%)    
    Figure 48: Trust among employees in July 2020, EU27 (%)       
    Figure 49: Trust among the self-employed in July 2020, EU27 (%)

  • First findings

    A first findings report was published on completion of the first round of the survey:

Part of the series

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

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