Due to the nature of containment measures, the impacts are very sector-specific and are likely to impact most on those with a higher share of non-teleworkable tasks, workers on precarious contracts, young people and women.
The majority of the 500 measures recorded in Eurofound’s COVID-19 EU PolicyWatch database (April 2020) were geared towards keeping businesses afloat (35%), protecting incomes (beyond short-time work measures – 20%) and protecting employment (13%).
As a result of lessons learned from the previous economic crisis, all EU Member States now offer short-time work or temporary lay-off schemes. However, their effectiveness is likely to be influenced by significant differences in eligibility conditions, income replacement rates, duration and associated bars on dismissals.
The fact that despite the widespread adoption of income protection measures, many individuals and families experienced dramatic reductions in income is illustrated by the widespread adoption of initiatives to defer rent, mortgage or loan payments.
The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the lives of individuals and societies, including on the economy and labour markets, is unprecedented. The impact of the global health emergency has placed a growing number of businesses under threat, putting the jobs of more and more workers at risk and impRead more
The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the lives of individuals and societies, including on the economy and labour markets, is unprecedented. The impact of the global health emergency has placed a growing number of businesses under threat, putting the jobs of more and more workers at risk and impacting the livelihoods of many citizens. Policymakers moved swiftly in an effort to mitigate the social and economic effects on businesses, workers and citizens. Eurofound’s COVID-19 EU PolicyWatch database provides information on initiatives introduced to cushion these effects. Drawing on the content of this database of around 500 policy initiatives (April 2020), this report aims to present an overview of both large-scale government measures and collective agreements that impact on large groups of workers, setting this in the context of the evolving labour market situation.
Eurofound (2020), COVID-19: Policy responses across Europe, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.
Data, tables and graphs
Eurofound's COVID-19 EU PolicyWatch collates information on the responses of government and social partners to the crisis, as well as gathering examples of company practices aimed at mitigating the social and economic impacts.
Table 1: Sectoral social partner statements linked to COVID-19 (as of mid-May 2020)
Table 2: Categorisation of mitigation measures
Table 3: Overview of measures adopted in different countries to mitigate the impact of COVID-19: Measures for businesses
Table 4: Overview of measures adopted in different countries to mitigate the impact of COVID-19: Measures for workers
Table 5: Overview of measures adopted in different countries to mitigate the impact of COVID-19: Measures for citizens
Table 6: National-level measures to allow for the deferral of payments of various business liabilities
Table 7: Grant payments introduced in certain countries to support businesses with fixed costs
Table 8: Income support measures for the self-employed, solo self-employed and other groups not previously covered
Table 9: Support measures and benefits for working parents and carers
Figure 1: GDP per capita (percentage change on previous year, 2019–2021), EU27 and the UK
Figure 2: Projected rise in unemployment, 2020 compared to 2019, EU27 and the UK (pp)
Figure 3: Distribution of policy measures in different categories (%)
Figure 4: Four main sub-categories of measures adopted (%)
Figure 5: Role of social partners in the development of COVID-19 policy responses (%)
Figure 6: Involvement of social partners in the development of COVID-19 legislative policy responses, by category (%)
Figure 7: New or amended STW schemes to tackle COVID-19, EU27, Norway and the UK
Figure 8: Crisis impact thresholds (as % share of turnover) for access to STW allowance schemes
Figure 9: Replacement rate of STW allowance as a percentage of previous wage, EU27, Norway and the UK
Figure 10: Employees who have started teleworking due to COVID-19, EU27 (%)
Figure 11: Profile of employees teleworking for the first time post-COVID-19, EU27 (%)
Figure 12: Age limit of the child/disabled child for eligibility to obtain leave and/or benefits
Il est possible que des recherches effectuées avant le retrait du Royaume-Uni de l’Union européenne le 31 janvier 2020 et publiées après cette date incluent des données relatives aux 28 États membres de l’UE. À compter de cette date, les recherches ne porteront, sauf indication contraire, que sur les 27 États membres de l’UE (UE-28 moins le Royaume-Uni)
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
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