Based on the so-called Dual System (of Vocational Training)  (Duales
System), practical vocational training  in Germany is given at work in the
participating employer's establishment, backed up by statutory theoretical
training and general education provided in vocational training school  s.
The characteristic feature of the system is that the provision of knowledge
and skills is linked to the acquisition of the required job experience.
With 270,000 persons either on early retirement, unemployed or otherwise
excluded from the labour market, theSocial Democrat-led Government is anxious
to involve the social partners in producing workable alternatives for job
creation for these groups of workers, rather than simply paying lip-service
to the idea. In the 1995 collective bargaining round, the social partners
were invited to elaborate on social clauses in their collective agreements.
Accordingly, 90% of the bargaining units in the are covered by the LO trade
union confederation and DA employers' confederation agreed on what have
become known as "Social Chapters", which contain framework provisions on job
creation on special terms of employment - ie, content of work, working hours
and pay - to be negotiated and elaborated upon at local and company level.
Similarly, the bargaining parties in government employment agreed on Social
Chapters in their 1995 collective agreements. Employees in local government
at regional and municipal level were also covered by a framework agreement
negotiated in May 1996.
After three months' bargaining, the annual revision of the national
collective agreement covering banks and other credit institutions was
concluded in April 1997. It is the first collective agreement in Portugal to
grant five weeks' paid holidays, and also increases pay and improves
maternity and paternity provisions
On 15 April 1997 the Minister for Equal Opportunities Affairs, Labour Law and
Working Hours, Ms Ulrica Messing, declared that she intends to set up an
official committee to propose measures to improve the functioning of the pay
determination process. She hoped that some of these measures could come into
force before the start of next year's bargaining round.
On 8 April, AKZO-Nobel and the unions reached agreement on both working time
reductions and pay increases. The dispute, which had served to divide
AKZO-Nobel and the industrial unions since 13 March (NL9703108N ), was
resolved to everyone's satisfaction.
It emerged in April 1997 that the former president of the Irish Congress of
Trade Unions (ICTU), Phil Flynn, is expected to play a key role in the new
"partnership-based" industrial relations structure currently being drawn up
between management and unions at Ireland's state-owned airline, Aer Lingus.
Over 4,000 workers are employed by the airline and a further 1,600 by its
maintenance subsidiary, TEAM.
Padraig Flynn, the commissioner responsible for employment, industrial
relations and social affairs, announced on 3 April 1997 that the Commission
is to take infringement proceedings against three member states for their
failure to apply certain Community legislation in the social field. Reasoned
opinions outlining the Commission's view are to be sent to France, Italy and
Greece. The details of the cases are as follows:
April 1997 was a very good month for securing the future of British car
plants. The Ford Halewood plant on Merseyside and the Peugeot Ryton plant in
Coventry have both secured the production of new vehicles into the next
century. The future of Rover's Longbridge plant is in the balance while an
announcement is delayed over whether a new model /Mini/ will be produced.
Following negotiations which have been held in a cooperative atmosphere,
Belgacom, the partially privatised, but still largely government-owned
Belgian telephone company, has announced plans to reduce rather drastically
its number of employees. The current workforce of about 26,000 will have to
be reduced by about 5,000 by the end of 1998.
In March 1997, Guardian Europe SA, signed its first-ever collective agreement
for blue-collar workers. The deal provides for pay increases, while its
provisions on other terms and conditions largely mirror statutory provisions.
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Adequate, affordable housing has become a matter of great concern, with an alarming number of Europeans with low or lower household incomes unable to access any, especially in capital cities. Housing was a key factor in people’s experience of the COVID-19 pandemic: its quality and level of safety significantly affected how lockdowns and social distancing measures were experienced, with those who had no access to quality housing at higher risk of deteriorating living conditions and well-being.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in European sectoral social dialogue taking place at cross-sectoral level. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations at cross-sectoral level in the EU Member States.