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Arbejdsmarkedsrelationer og social dialog

Arbejdsmarkedsrelationer og social dialog er en af de seks hovedaktiviteter i Eurofounds arbejdsprogram for perioden 2021-2024. Eurofound vil fortsat fungere som ekspertisecenter for overvågning og analyse af udviklingen i arbejdsmarkedsrelationer og den sociale dialog på nationalt og EU-plan. Agenturet vil fortsat støtte dialogen mellem arbejdsmarkedets parter, herunder i lyset af konsekvenserne af covid-19, ved at trække på ekspertisen blandt Eurofounds netværk af korrespondenter på nationalt plan.

I løbet af de næste fire år vil Eurofound give vigtig indsigt i udfordringerne og perspektiverne inden for arbejdsmarkedsrelationer og social dialog i EU. Med sin veletablerede ekspertise på dette område undersøger Eurofound de væsentligste udviklingstendenser, der berører aktører, processer og centrale resultater inden for arbejdsmarkedsrelationer. Agenturet sammenligner de nationale arbejdsmarkedssystemer, herunder national social dialog og kollektive overenskomstforhandlinger . Eurofound vil med udgangspunkt i sin database COVID-19 EU PolicyWatch, der blev oprettet i 2020, overvåge politiske initiativer fra regeringer, arbejdsmarkedets parter og andre aktører for at afbøde krisens sociale og økonomiske konsekvenser samt bistå i genopretningsindsatsen. Der vil regelmæssigt blive rapporteret om lønfastsættelse mindsteløn og arbejdstid samt arbejdslivsresultater.

Eurofounds ekspertise støtter arbejdsmarkedets parter i deres kapacitetsopbygning med henblik på at opnå en effektiv social dialog, og agenturet fremmer udviklingen af den europæiske sociale dialog ved at se på repræsentativiteten af arbejdsmarkedets parters organisationer i forskellige sektorer for at vurdere deres berettigelse til at deltage i udvalg vedrørende social dialog.

"Vi er der for at støtte dialogen mellem ledelsen og arbejdstagerne. Og jeg tror, at de data, vi samler, og den research, vi udfører, er vigtige, hvis de hjælper aktørerne til selv at fungere bedre ... En levende social dialog er en del af det, man kunne kalde en social markedsøkonomi, hvilket er, hvad Den Europæiske Union sigter mod at opnå."

— David Foden, Rådgiver, Arbejdsmarkedsrelationer

Topic

Recent updates

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The post-pandemic recovery of Europe continued in 2023, with strong job creation despite subdued economic growth, against a background of rising geopolitical tension. Eurofound’s research over the year brought to...

2 maj 2024
Publication
Annual report

Vigtige politikudmeldinger

Infografik

De vigtigste resultater af Eurofounds research tjener som input til de politiske beslutningstagere i forbindelse med deres arbejde med nogle af de centrale spørgsmål på dette område.

  • Arbejdsmarkedets parter spiller gennem kollektive overenskomstforhandlinger en afgørende rolle med hensyn til at sikre en retfærdig behandling af europæiske arbejdstagere samt stabile og forudsigelige rammer for arbejdsgivere.
  • Effektive kollektive overenskomstforhandlinger sikrer, at konkurrencen mellem virksomheder kan fokusere på at øge effektiviteten frem for at udnytte arbejdskraften gennem fælles regler for løn og arbejdsvilkår.
  • Arbejdsmarkedssystemer er i stigende grad truet på grund af ændringer i samfundet, på arbejdsmarkederne og i tilrettelæggelse af arbejdet. Dette har skabt udfordringer for de centrale aktørers kapacitet i arbejdsmarkedssystemerne i medlemsstaterne.
  • Med hensyn til løn viser resultaterne, at 7 ud af 10 mindstelønsarbejdere i EU-rapporten til en vis grad har svært ved at få tingene til at hænge sammen sammenlignet med færre end 5 ud af 10 andre arbejdstagere. Disse tal varierer dog betydeligt fra land til land. I lyset af pandemien kan mindstelønninger spille en rolle i de forskellige politikker, der udarbejdes til stabilisering af indkomster — og dermed efterspørgsel — for at modvirke en nedadgående spiral mod økonomisk tilbagegang eller krise.
  • En effektiv europæisk social dialog afhænger af stærke forbindelser til det nationale niveau, så EU's dagsorden forbliver relevant, og autonome EU-aftaler gennemføres på en meningsfuld måde på nationalt plan.
  • Selv om der er kommet flere fælles initiativer ud af den europæiske sociale dialog, er der kun indgået få aftaler. I nogle sektorer er der bekymring for, at arbejdsmarkedets parters anmodninger om gennemførelse af aftaler via EU-lovgivning er blevet afvist, og at der er behov for bedre forbindelser mellem EU-plan og de nationale plan.
  • Den faldende tendens i fagforeningstætheden giver anledning til bekymring i mange medlemsstater. Færre end én ud af tre arbejdspladser (med 10+ arbejdstagere) i EU (29 %) har en eller anden form for medarbejderrepræsentation. Lovkrav er en vigtig drivkraft for tilstedeværelsen af repræsentation.
  • Kollektive overenskomstforhandlinger er fortsat kernen i arbejdsmarkedssystemerne i EU. De politiske beslutningstagere bør benytte sig af covid-19-krisen og se den som en mulighed for at indføre nye initiativer til at fremme, styrke og støtte kollektive overenskomstforhandlinger.
  • Ud over arbejdsmarkedets parters indsats kræver en effektiv social dialog og velfungerende arbejdsmarkedsrelationer offentlige midler og støtte fra de offentlige myndigheder. Politiske beslutningstagere bør undersøge nye former for videnoverførsel, ressourcetilvejebringelse og involvering af arbejdsmarkedets parter på EU- og nationalt plan.
  • Det er vigtigt at værne om og fremme retfærdige, velfungerende og afbalancerede arbejdsmarkedsrelationer for at sikre inklusiv og bæredygtig vækst samt sociale fremskridt i EU. I kølvandet på covid-19 vil det også være en vigtig måde, hvorpå politiske beslutningstagere kan integrere EU's sociale og økonomiske dimensioner som fastsat i den europæiske søjle for sociale rettigheder.

2021–2024 work plan

During 2021–2024, Eurofound will provide important insights into the challenges and prospects in the area of industrial relations and social dialogue in the EU. With a long-established expertise in this field, Eurofound explores the main developments affecting the actors, processes and key outcomes of industrial relations. It compares national systems of industrial relations, including national social dialogue and collective bargaining. Building on its EU PolicyWatch database created in 2020, Eurofound will monitor policy initiatives by governments, social partners and other actors to cushion the social and economic fallouts of the crisis, as well as to assist in the recovery efforts. Its regular reporting on pay setting, minimum wage and working time developments, as well as working life outcomes, will be ongoing.

Eurofound’s expertise supports the capacity-building of the social partners to achieve effective social dialogue, and the Agency promotes the development of the European social dialogue by looking at the representativeness of social partner organisations in different sectors to assess their eligibility to participate in social dialogue committees.

Addressing stakeholder priorities

Eurofound’s research aims to assist the European institutions, national public authorities and social partners at various levels to address the challenges facing the EU and at national level in the areas of policy formation, social dialogue, collective bargaining and the regulation of employment relations.

The Agency’s work programme is aligned with the European Commission’s political guidelines over the next four years, directly feeding into a number of key policy areas aimed at creating a strong social Europe. In particular, Eurofound will support the policy initiatives under the European Pillar of Social Rights linked to social dialogue and the involvement of workers, particularly in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. Specific findings will be available to inform the European policy debate on minimum wages and pay transparency, as well as on working time. In consultation with the European Commission, Eurofound will continue its focused work on European social dialogue through its series of representativeness studies in selected sectors.

 

Eurofound research

In 2024, Eurofound continues its national monitoring of trends and developments in industrial relations, social dialogue, collective bargaining and working life regulations and outcomes. 

To support European social dialogue, in 2024 the Agency plans to publish studies on the representativeness of social partner organisations in six sectors: construction, extractive industries, chemical sector, road transport including urban public transport, postal and courier services, and graphical industries. In addition, studies are ongoing on the following sectors: agriculture, temporary agency work, ports, maritime transport, tanning and leather, footwear, sugar, inland waterway transport, central government administration, railways and commerce. Eurofound continues its work on initiatives to support capacity building for effective social dialogue. In 2024, the Agency launches a new phase of Tripartite Exchange Seminars in collaboration with the European Training Foundation, Cedefop and the European Environment Agency.

Eurofound carries out its annual exercise of examining the involvement of national social partners in policymaking, in the context of the European Semester process and the Recovery and Resilience Facility, which in 2024 includes findings on the role of tripartite discussions held in Economic and Social Councils in Member States having such bodies. The contribution made by sectoral social partners to the implementation of reforms and investments included in the Recovery and Resilience Plans is also analysed, looking at policy processes that link European and national policy agendas. 

Eurofound’s EU PolicyWatch database continues to capture relevant policy initiatives by governments, social partners and other actors, including those taken to mitigate the socioeconomic consequences of the war in Ukraine, as well as those related to the twin transition.

Work on outcomes in collective bargaining agreements beyond the topic of pay concludes in 2024 and the results and dataset are planned for 2025. Research also concludes on how larger increases in statutory minimum wages affect collective bargaining and collectively agreed wages for low-paid groups. 

Eurofound collaborates with the European Institute for Gender Equality in 2024 to investigate further experiences with the implementation of gender pay transparency measures, with a focus also on those Member States that have recently introduced new legislation, and how the ‘work of equal value principle’ is defined and implemented.

The annual reviews on minimum wages and on working time in the EU continue in 2024. The working life country profiles are also being updated. The ongoing monitoring of industrial relations systems includes regular updates to the European Industrial Relations Dictionary.

Key outputs

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Eurofound's 2024 work programme is set in the context of the upcoming European elections, war in Ukraine, renewed Middle East conflict and rising cost of living across the EU.

23 januar 2024
Publication
Work programme
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Den årlige gennemgang af mindstelønninger i 2023 er udarbejdet i en tid med en hidtil uset inflation i hele Europa. Selv om dette førte til store stigninger i de nominelle...

29 juni 2023
Publication
Research report

Eurofound expert(s)

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Christine Aumayr-Pintar is a senior research manager in the Working Life unit at Eurofound. Her current research topics include minimum wages, collectively agreed wages and gender...

Senior research manager,
Working life research unit
Publications results (531)

The post-pandemic recovery of Europe continued in 2023, with strong job creation despite subdued economic growth, against a background of rising geopolitical tension. Eurofound’s research over the year brought to light evidence on the key issues shaping the daily lives and work of Europeans.

02 May 2024

Three years after the adoption of the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF), this report reviews the quality of the social partners’ involvement in 2023 in the ongoing implementation of reforms and investments funded by that initiative. It also examines the quality of their involvement in the prepa

26 February 2024

In this pilot project, Eurofound successfully established the feasibility of, and piloted, an EU-wide database of minimum pay rates contained in collective agreements related to low-paid workers. A conceptual and measurement framework was devised, a total of 692 collective agreements – related to 24

26 January 2024

This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the furniture sector.

08 December 2023

Previous Eurofound research developed three complementary tools to examine the dynamics of industrial relations and compare how national industrial relations systems are faring in terms of quality and change over time.

05 December 2023

In the EU, non-compliance with statutory or negotiated minimum wages averages 6.93% or 1.3%, depending on the statistics used. The lowest national estimate is 0.01% in Belgium and the highest is 11.59% in Hungary.

27 November 2023

This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the woodworking sector.

21 November 2023

This study provides information to allow for an assessment of the representativeness of the national and supranational social partners at cross-industry level in the EU.

09 November 2023

This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the professional football sector.

26 October 2023

This report examines the average weekly working hours across Europe in 2021 and 2022. It covers important developments resulting from legislative reforms in collective bargaining at national or sectoral level, drawing on debates about the reduction of working time and the four-day working week.

24 October 2023

Online resources results (1768)

Minimum wages 2024 – The tide is turning

While the prospects for minimum wage workers in early 2023 looked gloomy, the new year brings better news: national minimum wages were raised significantly in most countries.

Mary McCaughey speaks with Eurofound experts Christine Aumayr-Pintar and Carlos Vacas-Soriano about the adequacy of minimum wages in Europe as they stand at the moment, how the EU has sought to improve the situation of low-wage earners through a Directive on adequate minimum wages, and how widesprea
10 januar 2024

Working life in Moldova

Eurofound and the European Training Foundation have developed the first working life country profile for Moldova in recognition of its new status as an EU candidate country. The profile is intended to provide an overview of Moldova’s key socioeconomic characteristics and regulations to serve as a ba

Working life in Georgia

Eurofound and the European Training Foundation have developed the first working life country profile for Georgia, which is an EU candidate country. The profile is intended to provide an overview of Georgia’s key socioeconomic characteristics and regulations to serve as a background for its work t

Presentation by Ricardo Rodriguez Contreras, Research Manager, Eurofound. 2-3 October 2023, EMCO meeting hosted by the Spanish Presidency, Madrid.

9 oktober 2023
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Minimum wages in Belgium

Minimum wages in Belgium exist at national and sectoral levels and are the outcome of collective bargaining. The national minimum wage typically lags behind sectoral minimum wages in Belgium, and policymakers have been concerned about the relative decrease in the national minimum wage compared with

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Cyprus introduces a national statutory minimum wage

On 31 August 2022, a new decree on minimum wages was published in Cyprus after a long and arduous process of negotiations and social dialogue. The ministerial decree, which came into effect on 1 January 2023, established a national minimum wage in Cyprus for the first time, a groundbreaking and cont

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Minimum wage debate in Italy

Italy has no minimum wage prescribed by law. Minimum wages are set through collective agreements at sectoral level, and the majority of employees in Italy are covered by a collective bargaining agreement in which wages are set. This article outlines the latest positions (2023) of the government and

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Measures to lessen the impact of the inflation and energy crisis on citizens

As governments across the EU continue to implement policies to support citizens and businesses in the face of rising food and energy prices caused by the COVID-19 crisis and intensified by the war in Ukraine, this article summarises the policy responses as reported in Eurofound’s EU PolicyWatch

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Minimum wage hikes struggle to offset inflation

As the EU economy advanced its recovery following the pandemic, the high rate of inflation throughout 2022 meant that wage setting actors made their decisions under a cloud of uncertainty. While nominal increases in statutory minimum wages reached an all-time high, minimum wage workers in most count


Blogs results (22)
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Minimum wages have risen significantly in 2022, as the EU Member States leave behind the cautious mood of the pandemic. However, rising inflation is eating up these wage increases, and only flexibility in the regular minimum wage setting processes may avoid generalised losses in purchasing power

15 juni 2022
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With the arrival of the month of May, the 2022 European Semester Spring Package is anticipated soon. After a transformative year in 2021, which saw the launch of the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) under NextGenerationEU, the European Semester cycle has resumed its role as the reference

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With its proposed directive on gender pay transparency, the European Commission has significantly bolstered the set of tools for delivering its objectives compared to those presented in its 2014 Recommendation. The proposed portfolio of measures addresses many shortcomings of the instruments that

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Decision-makers approached minimum wage setting for 2021 cautiously due to the economic uncertainty caused by the pandemic. Despite this, nominal statutory minimum wages rose in most Member States and the UK, although at lower rates than in recent years.

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In the context of the ongoing trend of a fall in collective bargaining coverage, and recent calls at EU level to promote collective bargaining coverage as an instrument to support fair and decent wages, new data from Eurofound’s fourth European Company Survey (ECS) show that two-thirds of workers

28 oktober 2020
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The coronavirus disease (Covid-19) is having drastic consequences for the world of work. In most European countries workers who are not delivering essential ‘frontline’ services are being asked to stay home. Unfortunately many are out of work, while many of those who are not are minimum-wage and low

1 april 2020
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As one of their ‘100 days in office’ initiatives, the new European Commission intends to propose an initiative for an EU minimum wage. The aim is that by 2024 every worker in the EU should earn a fair and adequate wage, no matter where they live.

15 januar 2020
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Trade unions in many EU Member States face the issue of declining membership. This is a fundamental challenge for organised labour, but it is premature to speak about the redundancy unions: when it comes to important decisions affecting the workplace, restructuring being one, trade unions remain a

20 november 2019
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The International Labour Organization (ILO) met for the first time 100 years ago, and right at the top of the agenda for discussion for this new specialised UN agency was the 8-hour working day. This discussion subsequently resulted in the Hours of Work (Industry) Convention, which stated that ‘The

12 november 2019
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The European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work last year documented the case of a Dutch temporary work agency that hired workers of various nationalities to work for a construction company in Belgium. The wages were suspiciously low, and the Belgian Labour Inspectorate believed that EU law

17 juli 2019

Upcoming publications results (9)

This report reviews the quality of the national social partners’ involvement in the implementation of the reforms and investments shaping the digital and green transition in the context of national policymaking. These reforms and investments stem mainly from the Recovery and Resilience Facility.

March 2025

This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the extractive industries sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective par

November 2024

This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the construction sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participatio

November 2024

This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the chemical sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in

November 2024

This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the road transport sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participat

November 2024

This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the postal and courier activities sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effec

November 2024

This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the graphical industry. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation

November 2024

This publication comprises individual country reports on developments in working life in each of the 27 EU Member States and Norway in 2023, based on national research and survey results.

June 2024

The 2024 annual review of minimum wages presents the most recent rates of national minimum wages and recalls how they were set and agreed upon during 2023. It includes information on minimum wages set in sectoral collective agreements in countries without national minimum wages.

June 2024
Data results (10)

Eurofound publishes gross and nominal statutory minimum wages applicable in EU countries that have a statutory minimum wage.

25 januar 2024
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