The growth rate of Bulgaria’s GDP accelerated to 1.7% in 2011. In 2012, the recovery of the economy from recession continued. In the third quarter of the year GDP rose by 0.5% compared to the same period of 2011. The achievement of a budget deficit lower than 3% is a positive fact. The growth of the economy was not accompanied by employment growth. Unemployment remains high – about 12% in September 2012. The negative impact of the crisis on employment was most pronounced in small and medium-sized enterprises.
This report gives an overview of working conditions, job quality, workers’ health and job sustainability in the retail sector (NACE 47). It is based mostly on the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS), which gathers data on working conditions and the quality of work across 34 European countries. Additional information on the structural characteristics of the sector is derived from Eurostat data.
This report gives an overview of working conditions, job quality, workers’ health and job sustainability in the furniture sector (NACE 31). It is based mostly on the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS), which gathers data on working conditions and the quality of work across 34 European countries. Additional information on the structural characteristics of the sector is derived from Eurostat data. The fifth EWCS contains responses from 351 workers in the furniture sector and this fact sheet covers both the employed and the self-employed, comparing the situation in the sector to that in the EU28 as a whole.
In the present system of industrial relations in Cyprus, cross-sector collective bargaining does not exist. Collective bargaining is mainly decentralised, with the largest number of agreements concluded at enterprise level. Despite the numerical preponderance of the enterprise level, the sectoral level is seen as just as important, if not more important, as far as coverage is concerned. Overall, however, collective bargaining coverage has shown a tendency to fall.
The development of the Czech economy in recent years has confirmed its dependence on external conditions. The economic recession affected the Czech economy as late as 2009, when the GDP growth rate hit the negative value -4.5%. In 2009–2012 the imbalance in the labour market deepened and the registered unemployment rate rose dramatically to 8.0–9.0%. Relations among the social partners were far more consolidated than relations between the social partners and the government in 2008–2012.
On 2 December 2013, a memorandum establishing the Lithuanian Business Council
was signed by the four main national employers’ organisations: the
Confederation of Lithuanian Industrialists (LPK ), the Investors’ Forum
(IF ), the Lithuanian Business Employers Confederation (LVDK ) and the
Association of Lithuanian Chambers of Commerce, Industry and Crafts (LPPARA
) signed .
A study has looked at the risk of ‘burn-out’ among medical staff in
Belgian hospitals. The research was commissioned by the Belgian Federal
Public Service Employment, Labour and Social Dialogue  and the Belgian
Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment . The
study, which investigated both negative and positive aspects of healthcare
work, was carried out by Leuven University (KU Leuven ) and IDEWE , a
not-for-profit association which promotes well-being at work and its findings
were published in a report, An investigation into burn-out and enthusiasm
among doctors and nurses in Belgian hospitals (2.2 MB PDF) .
Bulgaria’s statutory national minimum wage is determined by a decree of the
Council of Ministers, in consultation with the social partners. However,
collective agreements at sectoral or company level may set a minimum wage
that is higher than the legal minimum. Against a background of economic
crisis, austerity measures and frozen wages, there have been few increases to
the minimum wage in recent years. It was BGN 240 (€122) in 2009 and was BGN
310 (€158) before this latest increase. Bulgaria remains the EU country
with the lowest minimum wage level.
The supermarket chain Mercadona  is one of the biggest in Spain. It has
stores in 46 provinces in 15 autonomous communities. It employs more than
70,000 employees, most of them with open-ended contracts.
Having successfully negotiated national interprofessional agreements on the
‘generation contract’ (*FR1209031I* ) in 2012, and on safeguarding
jobs (*FR1302011I* ) on 11 January 2013, the social partners have
completed the negotiation of a major reform of vocational training. Talks
started in September 2013 (*FR1310011I* ) and concluded on 14 December.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
Human resources contribute to the success of an organisation though their skills. According to the ability, motivation, opportunity (AMO) model, employee contributions to organisational performance depend on their skills, their motivation to draw on their skills, and the opportunities to do so. Organisations can adopt managerial approaches cultivating ability (A) by facilitating learning, creating opportunity (O) by providing employees with autonomy, and encouraging motivation (M) by leveraging monetary and non-monetary motivational drivers.
This paper provides an analytical summary of state of the art academic and policy literature on the impact of climate change and policies to manage transitions to a carbon neutral economy on employment, working conditions, social dialogue and living conditions. It maps the key empirical findings around the impact of climate change and the green transitions on jobs, sectors, regions and countries in Europe, identifying the opportunities and risks that climate change policies bring to European labour markets.
As part of its response to Russia’s war on Ukraine, the EU swiftly activated its Temporary Protection Directive for those fleeing the conflict in Ukraine – enabling displaced persons to settle in the EU and have access to the labour market and basic public services. This policy brief highlights the main barriers encountered by these refugees (over 5 million people to date) when seeking a job and provides suggestions on how to facilitate their integration.
With the expansion of telework and different forms of hybrid work as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important for policymakers to consider both the opportunities and the negative consequences that may result. This report will explore potential scenarios for such work. In doing so, it will identify trends and drivers, and predict how they might interact to create particular outcomes and how they are likely to affect workers and businesses. Policy pointers will outline what could be done to facilitate desirable outcomes and to avoid undesirable ones.
Living and working in Europe, Eurofound’s 2022 yearbook, provides a snapshot of the latest developments in the work and lives of Europeans as explored in the Agency’s research activities over the course of 2022. Eurofound’s research on working and living conditions in Europe provides a bedrock of evidence for input into social policymaking and achieving the Agency’s vision ‘to be Europe’s leading knowledge source for better life and work’.
The term ‘hybrid work’ became popular due to the upsurge of telework during the COVID-19 pandemic. The term has been increasingly used to refer to situations in which (teleworkable) work is performed both from the usual place of work (normally the employer’s premises) and from home (as experienced during the pandemic) or other locations. However, the concept of hybrid work is still blurry, and various meanings are in use. This topical update brings clarity to this concept by exploring available information from recent literature and the Network of Eurofound Correspondents.
Housing affordability is a matter of great concern across the EU. Poor housing affordability leads to housing evictions, housing insecurity, problematic housing costs and housing inadequacy. These problems negatively affect health and well-being, create unequal living conditions and opportunities, and come with healthcare costs, reduced productivity and environmental damage. Private market tenants face particularly large increases in the cost of housing.
Eurofound's annual review of minimum wages reports on the development of statutory and collectively agreed minimum wages across the EU and the processes through which they were set. The focus of this year’s report is on the impact of high inflation on the setting of minimum wage rates. In addition, new figures on the net value of minimum wages are presented, along with the latest policy-relevant research in the EU Member States and Norway.
Building on previous work by Eurofound, this report will investigate intergenerational dynamics over time. During the 2008 double-dip recession, worrying intergenerational divides appeared in many Member States, and while some of the economic and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is universal, early data suggests disparities across demographic cohorts. Eurofound will examine how different age groups may have been affected in terms of their health, labour market participation, quality of life and financial needs, both in the short term and in the long term.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.