The economic crisis has forced many of Greece’s private sector enterprises
to close or suspend operations. There have also been employment cuts in the
public sector. This means that there is a rising youth unemployment problem
in Greece, as young people are leaving school and university to find there is
a lack of employment opportunities. Half of those aged 29 or under do not
have a job, and this age group makes up one in three of all unemployed
workers. Around half of this group have never had a job, and just over half
have been out of work for more than a year.
A public opinion survey (in Polish, 291 KB PDF)  in Poland has found there
is concern about wage inequality in the country. The survey was carried out
by Poland’s Public Opinion Research Centre (CBOS ). It was part of
larger research project, Current problems and events, and carried out between
1–12 August 2013. It used a representative random sample of 902 adult Poles
using computer assisted face-to-face interviews (CAPI).
Eurofound has conducted the European Quality of Life Survey EQLS) in 2003, 2007 and 2011. This report compares the results from the three waves to provide evidence of trends and change in the quality of life of Europeans over a decade. It also examines whether differences across EU Member States have narrowed or remained stable. One of its findings is that subjective well-being has remained stable across the EU as whole, but it also finds that financial strain in households has grown in the wake of the economic crisis.
Various types of temporary work in Belgium have different contractual
agreements. These include paid training schemes, student jobs, occasional
work, service vouchers, apprenticeships, fixed-term contracts and temporary
agency work . Most of these work contracts are partly or fully covered by
Collective Agreement 36 of 27 November 1981.
On 17 September, the tripartite supervisory board of the Estonian
Unemployment Insurance Fund (Töötukassa ) proposed reducing unemployment
insurance premiums from 3% to 2.1%. The board were in favour of this proposal
by four votes to two. Representatives of both employers and trade unions
voted in favour, arguing that the EUIF’s current reserves are large enough
to survive another crisis. By the end of 2013, the net assets of the EUIF
were expected to be €525.3 million, predicted to increase to €529.4
million by the end of 2014. According to the social partners’ estimates, at
the reduced rate of 2.1% the EUIF would collect €125.7 million gross
revenue in 2014 and its expected outgoings would be €121.6 million.
On 29 October 2013, French Labour Minister Michel Sapin sent a government
statement (in French, 1MB PDF)  to the departments of his ministry about
the implementation of labour inspectorate reform. The reform was later the
subject of a paper on the reform of the labour inspectorate (in French) 
presented to France’s Council of Ministers on 6 November 2013.
The aim of this working paper is to provide information about the working conditions and in-service training opportunities of early childhood education and care (ECEC) workers and to describe how these factors are linked to outcomes for children. This paper is part of the research project ‘Assessing childcare services’ being carried out by Eurofound in 2013 and 2014. The project focuses on the two dimensions of early childhood education and care that have been the main focus of policy initiatives at European level: ensuring that services are accessible and that they are of good quality.
This report explores how Europeans perceive the quality of their societies, and of their public services. It looks at such aspects of society as trust in institutions and other people, perceived tensions between social groups, attitudes towards migrants and the effects of the economic crisis on social inclusion and social cohesion. It finds that satisfaction with the economic situation of one’s country, not being in employment and overall life satisfaction appear to boost satisfaction with public services; hardship appears to reduce it.
Recent months have seen an improvement in economic outlook, a calming of the sovereign debt crisis and a stabilisation of unemployment rates. ECB President Mario Draghi was, however, cautious in his assessment of the emergent European recovery in January, calling it ‘modest’, ‘weak’ and ‘fragile’. This fourth issue for 2013 includes: Macroeconomic trends and prospects; Job creation and job loss at a glance (1/10/13 - 31/12/13); Sectoral distribution of job losses/job gains, and top five cases; Support instruments for restructuring in Greece; Cases in focus: RTVV, Spain - Liepajas Metalurgs, Latvia; Retail sector in focus – Amazon's expansion.
On 20 November 2013, the Trades Union Congress (TUC ) held a national day
of action to highlight the issue of blacklisting. Blacklisting is the
practice of illegally denying construction and other workers employment
because of their union activities which can include raising health and safety
concerns on building sites. The practice of blacklisting has been a
long-standing union grievance, especially since 2009 when a raid on an
organisation known as the Consulting Association revealed a database
containing personal information about more than 3,000 trade unionists and
others, which had been used for blacklisting purposes by 44 construction
companies (*UK1210019I* ).
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
Building on previous work by Eurofound, this report will investigate intergenerational dynamics over time. During the 2008 double-dip recession, worrying intergenerational divides appeared in many Member States, and while some of the economic and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is universal, early data suggests disparities across demographic cohorts. Eurofound will examine how different age groups may have been affected in terms of their health, labour market participation, quality of life and financial needs, both in the short term and in the long term.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
Are the policies required to meet the commitments outlined under the EU’s plan for a green transition, the Fit-for-55 package, and the associated budgetary commitments – the Green New Deal – likely to lead to positive or negative employment outcomes by 2030? What types of jobs will be created or destroyed? Will shifts in employment be skewed towards the bottom, middle or top of the job–wage distribution? This report aims to provide answers to these questions, using macro-modelled estimates of the likely impacts of these policies on the structure of employment.
This report explores the potential socio-economic implications of the transition to a climate-neutral economy on different EU regions and groups of people. It adopts a foresight approach to envision potential actions that can be taken to shape the future. After consulting with stakeholders and experts, three scenarios were developed to consider emerging economic and social inequalities at EU and regional level. The report includes policy pointers which outline measures to be taken to achieve a just transition to a sustainable, climate-neutral economy where no one is left behind.
This report explores how environmental performance has converged – or diverged – among the EU Member States since the early 2000s. With environmental goals piling up at the EU level, is it reasonable to expect Member States to adhere to this emerging EU environmental aquis? And, just as importantly, can we expect Member States to reach these goals at the same time? This report attempts to provide answers to these and other questions high on the political agenda.
This report investigates the potential individual and societal impacts of labour market insecurity, focusing on workers with non-permanent contracts, part-time and self-employed workers, and workers who perceive their job as insecure. It explores the impact of labour market insecurities on health and well-being, social exclusion, trust in people and the perception of fairness, as well as trust in institutions. Policies aimed at reducing labour market instability following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic are also presented.
This report highlights the prevalence of psychosocial risks across countries, sectors and occupations during the later phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. It outlines the specific working conditions that can lead to work-related health problems. In particular, the report investigates the potential pitfalls related to the expansion of telework, the role of job and income insecurity as a psychosocial risk and the phenomenon of adverse social behaviour and discrimination at work. In addition, it offers policy pointers on tackling the increase in work absenteeism due to mental health problems.
This report – published every two years – covers important developments resulting from legislative reforms in collective bargaining at national or sectoral level in 2021 and 2022. It examines the average weekly working hours set by collective agreements, both across national economies and in five sectors: education, health, transport, retail and public administration.
This policy brief provides facts and figures on the working life and job quality of so-called ‘essential workers’ and is based on data from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) extraordinary edition 2021. It will define various subgroups of essential workers, describe the challenges they face and outline the type of responses provided, or being developed, to address those challenges.
This policy brief aims to contribute to the effective monitoring and evaluation of the European Child Guarantee. Progress at EU level is measured by a monitoring framework which monitors the key areas of the European Child Guarantee: early childhood education and care; education, including school-based activities and at least one healthy meal each school day; healthcare; healthy nutrition; and adequate housing. The policy brief explores trends and disparities in these areas using a convergence analysis, which tracks any disparities among EU Member States.