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  • Article
    7 júl 2003

    According to Latvian labour law, the minimum wage paid may not be lower than
    the minimum set by the government. The national minimum wage is not linked to
    any economically-based income indicator, with the cabinet determining the
    minimum wage for 'normal-time' employees and the minimum hourly rate on the
    basis of fiscal and social considerations. From a very low level - EUR 3.48
    in 1992 (1 LVL currently equals 0.661 EUR) - the monthly minimum wage has
    increased to EUR 105.9 in 2003. The government: raised the minimum wage twice
    in 1992 (to EUR 5.07 and EUR 11.35); doubled it in 1993 (to EUR 22.70);
    raised it twice in 1994 (to EUR 34.04 and EUR 42.36); increased it in 1996
    (to EUR 57.49), 1998 (to EUR 63.54), 1999 (to EUR 75.64) and 2001 (to EUR
    90.77); and set it at EUR 105.9 from 1 January 2003.

  • Article
    7 júl 2003

    A recent statement from the managing director of the Association of Employers
    in the Danish Building Industry (Dansk Byggeri) has angered trade unions
    represented in the building industry, the General Workers' Union
    (Specialarbejderforbundet i Danmark, SiD) and the Union of Wood, Industrial
    and Building Workers (Forbundet Træ-Industri-Byg, TIB). He stated that it
    would be a sign of bad management and leadership if Danish building industry
    employers did not take advantage of the opportunity to employ workers from
    Poland and the Baltic states after they join the European Union in 1 May
    2004. Such workers could be hired at the lowest wage laid down in the
    relevant collective agreement without any difficulty. Normally Danish workers
    are paid close to the double the sector's minimum wage of DKK 94 per hour
    because of local agreements and acquired bonus entitlements. Hiring a central
    or eastern European worker on the lowest possible wage might breach the
    spirit of the wage development agreed in collective bargaining, but would not
    be against any collectively agreed or legislative provision. The employers
    also state that Danish workers on a building site will not be able to demand
    that new recruits from eastern Europe be paid at the same rate as them.

  • Article
    7 júl 2003

    On 20 June 2003, Ireland’s 270 public health doctors, represented by the
    Irish Medical Organisation (IMO), returned to work after a 10-week strike
    over a demand for concrete proposals from their employers in relation to
    improved pay, status, and terms and conditions of employment (IE0305203F
    [1]). During this time, the dispute became increasingly bitter, as the
    parties’ positions remained polarised. However, the dispute has now been
    resolved by a 'return to work formula' accepted by IMO and the Health Service
    Employers Agency (HSEA). This formula is based on a complex set of proposals
    brokered by the Labour Relations Commission (LRC), under which pay increases
    due under the local pay bargaining clauses of previous national agreements
    and the implementation of the Brennan Review of public health (this review
    was established to examine the future of public health structures, and its
    report was published in April 2002), were referred to the Public Service
    Adjudication Board.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/bitter-public-health-doctors-strike-continues

  • Article
    3 júl 2003

    This report seeks to address the question whether the structure of business
    finance in continental Europe is likely to converge towards the model
    observed in the UK and US economies where financial intermediaries,
    especially banks, play a much smaller role in the allocation of savings to
    productive investment purposes.

  • Article
    1 júl 2003

    A seminar on corporate social responsibility (CSR) held in Portugal in June
    2003 aimed to promote debate on the issue with a view to improving
    understanding of the principles and practices involved. The occasion
    presented the social partners with an opportunity to give their views on CSR,
    and they all stressed that one of the prerequisites in Portugal is respect
    for existing laws on economic activity, employment and the environment.

  • CAR
    30 jún 2003

    The comparative study was compiled on the basis of individual national
    reports submitted by EIRO's national centres. The text of each of these
    national reports is available below in Word format. The reports have not been
    edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living
    and Working Conditions. The national reports were drawn up in response to a
    questionnaire [1] and should be read in conjunction with it.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/sites/default/files/ef_files/eiro/2003/02/word/tn0210q.doc

  • Article
    30 jún 2003

    Die Arbeitskosten, also alle Aufwendungen, die einem Arbeitgeber durch die
    Beschäftigung von Arbeitskräften entstehen, bilden zweifellos den Dreh- und
    Angelpunkt der Arbeitsbeziehungen. Zu den Hauptbestandteilen der
    Gesamtarbeitskosten, wie sie Eurostat im Einklang mit der von der
    International Conference of Labour Statisticians vereinbarten internationalen
    Begriffsbestimmung [1] definierte, zählen die Arbeitnehmerentgelte (darunter
    Löhne und Gehälter), die Sozialbeiträge der Arbeitnehmer, Aufwendungen
    für die berufliche Bildung und Steuern zu Lasten des Arbeitsgebers. Die
    Höhe des Direktentgelts wird in den meisten europäischen Ländern in
    Tarifverhandlungen festgelegt oder von diesen stark beeinflusst. Zugleich
    nehmen die Sozialpartner in zahlreichen Ländern (über Verhandlungen oder
    auf anderem Wege) auch auf Faktoren wie die Höhe der
    Arbeitgebersozialbeiträge oder die Aufwendungen für die berufliche Bildung
    Einfluss. Man könnte also mit Fug und Recht behaupten, dass es bei den
    Arbeitsbeziehungen zu einem großen Teil um die Festlegung der Arbeitskosten
    geht.

    [1] http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/stat/res/labcos.htm

  • Article
    29 jún 2003

    Measures implemented by companies to help their employees in reconciling work
    and family responsibilities are still relatively rare in Italy. However, the
    findings of a survey, published in 2003, highlight a number of interesting
    'family-friendly' schemes introduced by Italian companies in recent years.
    The survey indicates that these companies provide a varied mix of measures,
    including innovative working time arrangements and telework, company services
    for families and childcare, allowances and benefits, and specific
    career-support measures for employees with family commitments.

  • Article
    29 jún 2003

    Hungary, with an average per capita GDP of less than 75% of the EU average,
    expects to use approximately HUF 1,100 billion to HUF 1,600 billion (EUR 4.4
    billion to EUR 6.4 billion) of money from the Community Structural and
    Cohesion Funds – Hungarian co-financing included – over the period
    between its accession to the Union on 1 May 2004 and the end of 2006.
    Pursuant to EU Council Regulation (EC) No. 1260/1999 [1] laying down general
    provisions on the Structural Funds, eligible countries are expected to
    prepare their development objectives and priorities in the framework of
    National Development Plans (NDPs) and submit them to the European Commission.
    These NDPs will be the basis for discussions with the Commission which will
    produce Community Support Frameworks (CSFs) containing the financial
    commitments of the EU and the government of the recipient country concerning
    spending on jointly financed development areas. According to Article 8 of the
    Council Regulation, partnership between the national government and social as
    well as civil actors is a key component of the Plans. The application of the
    principle of partnership should be extended to the preparation, financing,
    monitoring and evaluation of Community grants.

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=31999R1260&model=guichett

  • Article
    29 jún 2003

    In May 2003, Schiesser Pallas, a subsidiary of the German apparel
    multinational, Schiesser AG, announced that it was to close down its sewing
    operations in Greece, citing relatively high labour costs compared with
    countries such as Bulgaria and Romania. Despite detailed trade union
    counter-proposals, consultations failed to produce results and 500
    redundancies are expected soon.

Series

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2003

    Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2007

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2012

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2005

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2010

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Manufacturing employment outlook

    This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.

Forthcoming publications