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  • Article
    26 jún 2003

    The major industrial dispute over a new collective agreement for blue-collar
    workers in the municipal and city council sector (SE0305101N [1]) was due to
    escalate in the first week of June 2003. Some 47,000 members of the Municipal
    Workers' Union (Svenska Kommunalarbetareförbundet, Kommunal) were already on
    indefinite strike across the country since the previous week and the union
    gave notice of a further strike from 4 June by 18,000 bus drivers in Sweden's
    three largest cities. Stockholm, Göteborg and Malmö, plus 137
    municipalities (out of 290), were thus due to be hard hit by industrial
    action. The Union of Service and Communication (Facket för Service och
    Kommunikation, Seko) had also given notice of a sympathy strike by all 400
    train drivers on commuter services in the three cities, adding to the
    expected traffic chaos.


  • Article
    26 jún 2003

    January 2003 saw the first genuine strikes organised in Slovakia since it
    became independent in 1993 (SK0211103F [1]). The strikes took place on the
    railways as a consequence of long-term disputes between trade unions and
    management. Railworkers had previously been on the verge of strike action on
    several occasions in recent years. In late 1998 there were calls for a
    strike, while in the following year trade unions set a strike date during
    lengthy negotiations on pay increases. However, the negotiations led to a
    compromise with railways management and the planned strike was cancelled. In
    2001, a two-hour strike was announced by the trade unions but cancelled one
    hour before it was due to start because of a lack of organisational


  • Article
    26 jún 2003

    In April 2003, a new law on 'social employment' came into force in Poland,
    aimed at providing support and employment to up to the country's large number
    of people faced with social exclusion, such as long-term unemployed people,
    alcoholics and drug addicts, former prisoners, and people with mental
    illnesses. The legislation sets up social integration centres to provide
    assistance and integration programmes, and creates a system of subsidised
    employment to encourage employers to take on people from the target groups.

  • Article
    26 jún 2003

    In the 2003 Dutch collective bargaining round, occupational pension issues
    have led to a deadlock in negotiations at a number of major companies,
    notably in financial services and industry. Employers want to reform their
    pension schemes radically, as shrinking capital reserves and increasing
    numbers of claimants have depleted their funds. The Akzo Nobel chemicals
    group even wants to hive off its pension fund, making it independent. The
    trade unions are fiercely opposed to this plan and other more drastic
    austerity measures, but are increasingly prepared to accept a greater use of
    average-salary rather than final-salary schemes and a temporary suspension of
    pensions indexation.

  • Article
    25 jún 2003

    Nous tentons dans la présente étude de dégager une vue d’ensemble de la
    durée du temps de travail - telle qu’elle est établie par les conventions
    collectives et la législation - dans l’Union européenne et la Norvège en
    2002 (et 2001), basée sur les contributions des centres nationaux de
    l’Observatoire européen des relations industrielles (EIRO). Pour la
    première fois, nous incluons certaines données sur trois des pays candidats
    qui rejoindront l’UE en 2004 - la Hongrie, la Pologne et la Slovaquie.

  • Article
    25 jún 2003

    In June 2003, management and trade unions signed a preliminary agreement on a
    unified collective agreement for two of Spain's nuclear power plants, those
    at Almaraz and Trillo. This may represent the first step towards a sectoral
    agreement for the sector, where bargaining currently occurs at plant level.

  • Article
    25 jún 2003

    In summer 2003, France's Minister of Health announced that a reform of the
    sickness insurance system is to be presented in the autumn. While an
    increasing deficit posted by the sickness insurance funds has made this
    overhaul necessary, industrial relations tensions in the healthcare sector
    suggest that implementation may be problematic. The details of the reform are
    as yet unknown, but the major thrust appears to be a reduction in compulsory
    sickness insurance cover and the creation of specific measures for
    lower-income people.

  • Article
    25 jún 2003

    Die Erweiterung der Europäischen Union, bei der voraussichtlich ab 2004 bis
    zu 12 Länder Mittel- und Osteuropas sowie des Mittelmeerraums der EU
    beitreten werden, rückt immer näher. Vor diesem Hintergrund hat das
    Europäische Observatorium für die Entwicklung der Arbeitsbeziehungen (EIRO)
    die Erfassung der Entwicklungen im Bereich der Arbeitsbeziehungen auf die
    beitrittswilligen Länder ausgeweitet.

  • Article
    25 jún 2003

    Arbeitskämpfe - Streiks, Aussperrungen usw. - sind einer der vorrangigsten
    Aspekte von Arbeitsbeziehungen, nicht zuletzt in Bezug auf ihre Behandlung in
    den Medien sowie hinsichtlich ihrer Auswirkungen auf die und ihre Beachtung
    in der Öffentlichkeit. In manchen Quellen werden Arbeitskämpfe als
    wichtiger Indikator für das Funktionieren von Systemen im Bereich der
    Arbeitsbeziehungen betrachtet, wobei Arbeitskämpfe zum Teil als Zeichen für
    die Fehlfunktion eines Systems betrachtet werden, während sie von anderen
    als ein ralativ normales Merkmal eines gesunden und gut funktionierenden
    Systems angesehen werden. Im Juni 2001 veröffentlichte die Europäische
    Kommission eine Mitteilung über Beschäftigungs- und Sozialpolitik: ein
    Konzept für Investitionen in Qualität [1]. In diesem Dokument werden Wege
    und Möglichkeiten zur Förderung der 'Qualität' in der Beschäftigungs- und
    Sozialpolitik vorgeschlagen; es enthält ferner Vorschläge für eine Reihe
    von Indikatoren zur Messung dieser Qualität. Einer der unter 'Sozialer
    Dialog und Arbeitnehmermitbestimmung' aufgeführten Indikatoren sind 'durch
    Arbeitskämpfe verlorene Arbeitstage'.


  • Article
    25 jún 2003

    In its 2002 'Report on industrial accidents and occupational illnesses',
    Spain's UGT trade union confederation examines the country's high industrial
    accident and illness rate and seeks to identify the causes. These are found
    to to be lack of compliance with the relevant legislation by companies, and
    the high level of subcontracting, temporary contracts and temporary agency
    work, which particularly affects young workers.


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications