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Employment structure

The employment structure reflects the change in employment across occupations and sectors, using various proxies of job quality. The current debate about shifts in the employment structure is focused on the extent to which observed patterns of job polarisation and upgrading have contributed to wage inequality trends and on Europe's shrinking middle class.

Topic

Recent updates

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Since 2002, the European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has been monitoring the employment impact of large-scale restructuring events in Europe and covers the 27 EU Member States plus Norway.

Web page

Eurofound research

Eurofound’s European Jobs Monitor (EJM) analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU, covering all Member States.

Key outputs

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The European Jobs Monitor (EJM) tracks structural change in European labour markets. It analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives...

Data Item

Eurofound expert(s)

John Hurley

John Hurley is a senior research manager in the Employment unit at Eurofound. He took up the role of research manager in February 2012. He is responsible for the European...

Senior research manager,
Employment research unit
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Carlos Vacas Soriano is a research manager in the Employment unit at Eurofound. He works on topics related to wage and income inequalities, minimum wages, low pay, job quality...

Research manager,
Employment research unit
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​Martina Bisello is a research manager in the Employment unit at Eurofound. Her research interests include gender gaps in the labour market, occupational change and the impact of...

Research manager,
Employment research unit
Publications results (94)

Ahogy a gazdaságok kezdenek kilábalni a Covid19-világjárványból, az ukrajnai háborúnak az energia- és nyersanyagárakra gyakorolt hatása ellenére egyre nyilvánvalóbbá válik a munkaerőhiány. A válság tovább súlyosbította a munkaerőhiányt egyes olyan ágazatokban és szakmákban, ahol az egy ideje már

28 March 2023

Az európai munkaerőpiacok erőteljesebb állapotban lábaltak ki a Covid19-ből. 2021 végére, alig több mint 18 hónappal a világjárvány kezdete után az EU-ban a foglalkoztatási ráta csaknem elérte a válság előtti szintet. Ez a jelentés a 2020. és 2021. évi munkaerőpiaci fejleményeket foglalja össze az

20 October 2022

A Covid19-világjárvány az európai társadalmak számos dimenziójában kiélezte az egyenlőtlenségeket, beleértve a nők és a férfiak közötti egyenlőtlenségeket is számos, kulcsfontosságú területen. Ez a jelentés azokat a nemek közötti egyenlőtlenségeket vizsgálja, amelyek a Covid19-válság előtt már

13 October 2022

A technológiai változások az információk digitális tárolására, feldolgozására és kommunikációjára alkalmas elektronikus eszközök kapacitásának bővülésével egyidejűleg gyorsulnak. A digitalizáció átalakítja az EU gazdaságát és munkaerőpiacát: az EU tagállamaiban található munkahelyek egyharmadát a

15 December 2021

Az elmúlt fél évszázadban az európai munkaerőpiacok egyik legszembetűnőbb fejleménye a nők munkaerő-piaci részvételének hatalmas növekedése volt. Az elmúlt két évtizedben az EU-ban létrehozott három új nettó munkahelyből kettőt nők töltöttek be. Ugyanakkor a népesség elöregedése és a szakpolitikai

14 December 2021

Despite the increasing participation of women in the labour market and a higher share of women than men being hired into well-paid jobs in recent years, a gender pay gap exists across all EU Member States. Pay differentials between women and men have been shown to be significantly influenced by the

14 December 2021

A Covid19 világjárvány számos gazdasági tevékenység szüneteltetését, illetve korlátozását eredményezte, ami a munkaerőpiacon mélyreható következményekkel járt. A világjárvány kezdetén a munkahelyek száma a globális pénzügyi válság idején tapasztaltnál sokkal jelentősebb mértékben csökkent. A

19 October 2021

While unemployment is still a huge challenge in Europe, some countries, sectors and occupations are experiencing labour shortages. This report explores various approaches to identifying labour shortages and maps national policy debates around the issue. It documents public and social partner

20 July 2021

Megatrends, such as digitalisation, globalisation, demographic change and climate change, are transforming the world of work, with knock-on effects for working conditions and job quality. Against this background, this report examines working conditions and job quality from a sectoral perspective

05 November 2020

What have been the major trends and policy developments regarding the flexibilisation of employment in recent years? Eurofound’s work programme for 2017–2020 set out to document and capture these changes in the world of work. This flagship publication provides an overview of developments in Europe

16 April 2020

Online resources results (2)

United Kingdom: Latest working life developments – Q2 2016

The outcome of the referendum on EU membership, the immediate impact of the vote to leave, the social partners’ reaction and the steel industry crisis are the main topics of interest in this article. This country update reports on the latest developments in working life in the UK in the first

Blogs results (12)
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Following the declines in employment rates and working hours across Europe in 2020, economies began to show signs of recovery during the first quarter of 2021. The gradual rekindling of economic activity has led to a surge in demand for workers and reawakened concerns over labour shortages

20 július 2021
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The employment fallout of COVID-19 has been a story of two types of service work. Office-based knowledge workers have largely kept their jobs and incomes while participating in the huge and apparently successful ad hoc social experiment in working from home. Client-facing service workers have borne

2 február 2021
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Economic disparities have been decreasing between EU member states over the past decade, but at the same time inequality has been growing within member states. Despite national level convergence, the gap in wealth and income between the rich and the poor is growing in most of Europe. Some of this

29 október 2019
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Over the past four years a special project delegated to Eurofound has looked in detail at ongoing changes in manufacturing on a global scale, analysed how the industry will change further in the future, and assessed what the impacts will be for Europe. Looking at everything from changes in tasks for

9 április 2019
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Manual jobs in European manufacturing are being transformed as blue-collar workers take on more intellectual tasks. This is a consequence of the increasing use of digital tools and the growing importance of quality control in production. The severe losses of middle-paying jobs in the manufacturing

27 szeptember 2018
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The Great Recession had lasting effects on European labour markets, both in terms of employment levels and structure. Not only did employment rates drop significantly – taking years to return to pre-crisis levels, with some countries not fully recovered yet – but the crisis also accelerated

3 augusztus 2017
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The EU has finally recovered all the net employment losses sustained since the global financial crisis. It has been a long and painful process. But there is at last growing evidence of positive momentum in EU labour markets, if not quite ‘animal spirits’. Many of those member states most affected by

26 július 2017
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The Great Recession depressed real income levels across European countries. But the impact was very unequal across countries and income groups. Countries in the European periphery have been more affected than those in the core, halting the process of income convergence between European countries

23 június 2017
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EU-wide income inequality declined notably prior to 2008, driven by a strong process of income convergence between European countries. The Great Recession broke this trend. After 2008, income convergence has been sluggish, while inequality within many countries has increased significantly.

21 március 2017
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One of the common values that unites the European Union is that of equal opportunities: all citizens should have the same possibility to improve their lives and participate in the labour market regardless of gender, ethnicity, religion or sexual orientation. Ensuring equal opportunities in finding

8 március 2017

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