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Relațiile de muncă și dialogul social

Relațiile de muncă și dialogul social reprezintă una dintre cele șase activități principale ale programului de activitate al Eurofound pentru perioada 2021-2024. Eurofound va acționa în continuare ca centru de expertiză pentru monitorizarea și analiza evoluțiilor în materie de sisteme de relații de muncă și de dialog social la nivel național și la nivelul UE. Agenția va sprijini în continuare dialogul între partenerii sociali, inclusiv în contextul impactului pandemiei de COVID-19, folosind know-how-ul rețelei de corespondenți ai Eurofound de la nivel național.

În următorii patru ani, Eurofound va oferi contribuții importante pentru înțelegerea provocărilor și a perspectivelor din domeniul relațiilor de muncă și al dialogului social în UE. Cu o expertiză îndelungată în domeniu, Eurofound cercetează principalele evoluții care afectează actorii, procesele și rezultatele esențiale ale relațiilor de muncă. Agenția compară sistemele naționale de relații de muncă, inclusiv dialogul social național și negocierea colectivă. Folosind baza de date PolicyWatch a UE privind COVID-19, creată în 2020, Eurofound va monitoriza inițiativele în materie de politică ale guvernelor, ale partenerilor sociali și ale altor actori menite să atenueze consecințele sociale și economice ale crizei, precum și să contribuie la eforturile de redresare. Agenția își va continua activitatea de raportare periodică cu privire la evoluțiile în materie de stabilire a remunerațiilor salariu minim și timp de lucru , precum și cu privire la rezultatele în materie de viață profesională.

Expertiza Eurofound sprijină consolidarea capacităților partenerilor sociali în vederea desfășurării unui dialog social eficace; agenția promovează dezvoltarea dialogului social european prin analiza reprezentativității organizațiilor partenerilor sociali din diferite sectoare cu scopul de a evalua eligibilitatea acestora pentru participarea la comitete pentru dialog social.

„Suntem aici pentru a susține dialogul între partenerii sociali. Consider că datele pe care le culegem și activitatea de cercetare pe care o desfășurăm sunt importante în măsura în care ajută actorii, îi ajută să funcționeze mai bine... Dialogul social vibrant face parte din ceea ce am putea numi economia socială de piață, spre care tinde Uniunea Europeană.”

David Foden, consilier, relații de muncă

 

Topic

Recent updates

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This 2024 annual review of minimum wages provides a synopsis of minimum wage setting during 2023 in the EU27 and Norway. It reports in detail on the processes and outcomes...

26 Iunie 2024
Publication
Research report
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The post-pandemic recovery of Europe continued in 2023, with strong job creation despite subdued economic growth, against a background of rising geopolitical tension. Eurofound’s research over the year brought to...

2 Mai 2024
Publication
Annual report

Principalele mesaje de politică

Infografic

Principalele constatări ale cercetării întreprinse de Eurofound constituie date de intrare pe baza cărora factorii de decizie pot aborda unele dintre principalele probleme din acest domeniu.

  • Prin negociere colectivă, partenerii sociali joacă un rol fundamental în asigurarea unui tratament echitabil pentru lucrătorii europeni și a unui cadru stabil și previzibil pentru angajatori.
  • Negocierea colectivă eficace asigură o concurență între întreprinderi axată mai degrabă pe creșterea eficienței decât pe exploatarea forței de muncă prin norme comune privind remunerația și condițiile de muncă.
  • Sistemele de relații de muncă sunt supuse unor amenințări din ce în ce mai mari, din cauza schimbărilor care au loc în societate, pe piețele muncii și în organizarea muncii. Această situație a generat dificultăți în ceea ce privește capacitatea principalilor actori de la nivelul sistemelor de relații de muncă din statele membre.
  • În ceea ce privește salariul, rezultatele arată că șapte din zece lucrători cu salarii minime din UE raportează cel puțin o dificultate în satisfacerea necesităților, comparativ cu mai puțin de cinci din zece în rândul celorlalți lucrători; aceste cifre variază însă mult de la un stat la altul. În contextul pandemiei, salariile minime pot juca un rol în combinația de măsuri care vizează stabilizarea veniturilor - și, prin urmare, cererea - și pot contracara o spirală descendentă, în direcția recesiunii sau depresiei.
  • Pentru a fi eficace, dialogul social european trebuie să se bazeze pe legături solide cu nivelul național, astfel încât agenda UE să rămână relevantă și acordurile autonome ale Uniunii să fie puse în aplicare în mod semnificativ la nivel național.
  • Deși dialogul social european a generat mai multe inițiative comune, s-au încheiat puține acorduri. În unele sectoare s-a exprimat preocuparea că solicitările partenerilor sociali de a se pune în aplicare acordurile prin intermediul legislației UE au fost respinse și că sunt necesare legături mai bune între nivelul UE și cel național.
  • Tendința de scădere a densității organizațiilor sindicale reprezintă un motiv de îngrijorare în multe state membre. Mai puțin de unul din trei (29 %) medii profesionale (cu cel puțin 10 lucrători) din UE dispun de o formă de reprezentare a angajaților. Cerințele legislative reprezintă un factor esențial pentru prezența reprezentării.
  • Negocierea colectivă rămâne în centrul sistemelor de relații de muncă din UE. Factorii de decizie ar trebui să se folosească de oportunitatea creată de criza provocată de pandemia de COVID-19 pentru a introduce noi inițiative de promovare, consolidare și susținere a negocierii colective.
  • Pe lângă eforturile partenerilor sociali, este nevoie de finanțare publică și de sprijinul autorităților publice pentru ca dialogul social să fie eficace și relațiile de muncă să funcționeze bine. Factorii de decizie ar trebui să exploreze noi forme de transfer de cunoștințe, de alocare de resurse și de implicare a partenerilor sociali la nivel european și național.
  • Asigurarea și promovarea unor relații de muncă echitabile, funcționale și echilibrate sunt esențiale pentru asigurarea unei creșteri incluzive și durabile și a progresului social în UE. În urma pandemiei de COVID-19, aceste aspecte vor reprezenta și un mod important pentru factorii de decizie de a integra dimensiunile sociale și economice ale UE, astfel cum prevede Pilonul european al drepturilor sociale.

2021–2024 work plan

During 2021–2024, Eurofound will provide important insights into the challenges and prospects in the area of industrial relations and social dialogue in the EU. With a long-established expertise in this field, Eurofound explores the main developments affecting the actors, processes and key outcomes of industrial relations. It compares national systems of industrial relations, including national social dialogue and collective bargaining. Building on its EU PolicyWatch database created in 2020, Eurofound will monitor policy initiatives by governments, social partners and other actors to cushion the social and economic fallouts of the crisis, as well as to assist in the recovery efforts. Its regular reporting on pay setting, minimum wage and working time developments, as well as working life outcomes, will be ongoing.

Eurofound’s expertise supports the capacity-building of the social partners to achieve effective social dialogue, and the Agency promotes the development of the European social dialogue by looking at the representativeness of social partner organisations in different sectors to assess their eligibility to participate in social dialogue committees.

Addressing stakeholder priorities

Eurofound’s research aims to assist the European institutions, national public authorities and social partners at various levels to address the challenges facing the EU and at national level in the areas of policy formation, social dialogue, collective bargaining and the regulation of employment relations.

The Agency’s work programme is aligned with the European Commission’s political guidelines over the next four years, directly feeding into a number of key policy areas aimed at creating a strong social Europe. In particular, Eurofound will support the policy initiatives under the European Pillar of Social Rights linked to social dialogue and the involvement of workers, particularly in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. Specific findings will be available to inform the European policy debate on minimum wages and pay transparency, as well as on working time. In consultation with the European Commission, Eurofound will continue its focused work on European social dialogue through its series of representativeness studies in selected sectors.

 

Eurofound research

In 2024, Eurofound continues its national monitoring of trends and developments in industrial relations, social dialogue, collective bargaining and working life regulations and outcomes. 

To support European social dialogue, in 2024 the Agency plans to publish studies on the representativeness of social partner organisations in six sectors: construction, extractive industries, chemical sector, road transport including urban public transport, postal and courier services, and graphical industries. In addition, studies are ongoing on the following sectors: agriculture, temporary agency work, ports, maritime transport, tanning and leather, footwear, sugar, inland waterway transport, central government administration, railways and commerce. Eurofound continues its work on initiatives to support capacity building for effective social dialogue. In 2024, the Agency launches a new phase of Tripartite Exchange Seminars in collaboration with the European Training Foundation, Cedefop and the European Environment Agency.

Eurofound carries out its annual exercise of examining the involvement of national social partners in policymaking, in the context of the European Semester process and the Recovery and Resilience Facility, which in 2024 includes findings on the role of tripartite discussions held in Economic and Social Councils in Member States having such bodies. The contribution made by sectoral social partners to the implementation of reforms and investments included in the Recovery and Resilience Plans is also analysed, looking at policy processes that link European and national policy agendas. 

Eurofound’s EU PolicyWatch database continues to capture relevant policy initiatives by governments, social partners and other actors, including those taken to mitigate the socioeconomic consequences of the war in Ukraine, as well as those related to the twin transition.

Work on outcomes in collective bargaining agreements beyond the topic of pay concludes in 2024 and the results and dataset are planned for 2025. Research also concludes on how larger increases in statutory minimum wages affect collective bargaining and collectively agreed wages for low-paid groups. 

Eurofound collaborates with the European Institute for Gender Equality in 2024 to investigate further experiences with the implementation of gender pay transparency measures, with a focus also on those Member States that have recently introduced new legislation, and how the ‘work of equal value principle’ is defined and implemented.

The annual reviews on minimum wages and on working time in the EU continue in 2024. The working life country profiles are also being updated. The ongoing monitoring of industrial relations systems includes regular updates to the European Industrial Relations Dictionary.

Key outputs

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Eurofound's 2024 work programme is set in the context of the upcoming European elections, war in Ukraine, renewed Middle East conflict and rising cost of living across the EU.

23 Ianuarie 2024
Publication
Work programme
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Revizuirea anuală a salariilor minime din 2023 a fost elaborată în contextul unei rate a inflației fără precedent în întreaga Europă. Deși acest lucru a dus la creșteri substanțiale ale...

29 Iunie 2023
Publication
Research report

Eurofound expert(s)

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Christine Aumayr-Pintar is a senior research manager in the Working Life unit at Eurofound. Her current research topics include minimum wages, collectively agreed wages and gender...

Senior research manager,
Working life research unit
Publications results (532)

This 2024 annual review of minimum wages provides a synopsis of minimum wage setting during 2023 in the EU27 and Norway. It reports in detail on the processes and outcomes of setting the minimum wage rates for 2024 and beyond. It investigates the extent to which minimum wage earners were affected by

26 June 2024

The post-pandemic recovery of Europe continued in 2023, with strong job creation despite subdued economic growth, against a background of rising geopolitical tension. Eurofound’s research over the year brought to light evidence on the key issues shaping the daily lives and work of Europeans.

02 May 2024

Three years after the adoption of the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF), this report reviews the quality of the social partners’ involvement in 2023 in the ongoing implementation of reforms and investments funded by that initiative. It also examines the quality of their involvement in the prepa

26 February 2024

In this pilot project, Eurofound successfully established the feasibility of, and piloted, an EU-wide database of minimum pay rates contained in collective agreements related to low-paid workers. A conceptual and measurement framework was devised, a total of 692 collective agreements – related to 24

26 January 2024

This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the furniture sector.

08 December 2023

Previous Eurofound research developed three complementary tools to examine the dynamics of industrial relations and compare how national industrial relations systems are faring in terms of quality and change over time.

05 December 2023

In the EU, non-compliance with statutory or negotiated minimum wages averages 6.93% or 1.3%, depending on the statistics used. The lowest national estimate is 0.01% in Belgium and the highest is 11.59% in Hungary.

27 November 2023

This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the woodworking sector.

21 November 2023

This study provides information to allow for an assessment of the representativeness of the national and supranational social partners at cross-industry level in the EU.

09 November 2023

This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the professional football sector.

26 October 2023

Online resources results (1769)

Labour cost reductions pose new challenges to industrial relations in banking

Over the past few months, the Governor of the Bank of Italy, Antonio Fazio, and the Abi banking employers' association have urged the Government to start negotiations with employers' associations and trade unions in order to deal with the problems linked to the low profitability of the Italian

Recent trends in health and safety at work

Health and safety at work has arisen as a very serious matter of social concern over recent years and has become a focus of interest for both the state and the social institutions concerned. The magnitude and complexity of the problem and the need to find direct and effective solutions have induced

New national agreement on continuing training

At the end of 1996, the major trade unions and employers' associations signed the Second National Agreement on Continuing Training (II Acuerdo Nacional de Formación Continua), which was later endorsed by a tripartite agreement between these organisations and the Government. The new agreements build

Employers and unions adopt positions on labour market reform

Employers and unions want to reduce the amount of temporary recruitment and the number of types of employment contract. They also want to increase their freedom to negotiate labour market issues through collective bargaining. These are the key issues in the current debate over a new round of labour

The 1997 bargaining round previewed

The majority of Norwegian wage agreements are of two years' duration, and the current settlements will expire during 1998. However, issues relating to remuneration will be renegotiated at central level in 1997. Most of the agreements between LO (the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions or

Unemployment as the focus for collective bargaining at national level

In recent years pressure has mounted on all parties involved to rethink and revise the traditional policies and practices of Greek industrial relations as well as to promote social dialogue between employers and employees. As a result of changing conditions, some believe that a new era in industrial

European social partners issue joint declaration on Confidence Pact for Employment

At a special Social Dialogue Committee meeting held on 29 November 1996, the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), the Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations of Europe (UNICE), and the European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation (CEEP) adopted a joint contribution to the

The future of the social dialogue at Community level

On 18 September 1996, the European Commission adopted a /Communication Concerning the Development of the Social Dialogue Process at Community Level/ (COM(96) 448 final). Launching the Communication, the commissioner responsible for social affairs, Padraig Flynn, said that the time had come to reform

Apparent breakdown of Belgian central bargaining

For the first time since 1960, the Belgian social partners have failed to reach an intersectoral pay agreement and have instead accepted government imposition of measures on employment and maximum pay increases. This development runs counter to all traditions of free collective bargaining and the


Blogs results (22)
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Minimum wages have risen significantly in 2022, as the EU Member States leave behind the cautious mood of the pandemic. However, rising inflation is eating up these wage increases, and only flexibility in the regular minimum wage setting processes may avoid generalised losses in purchasing power amo

15 Iunie 2022
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With the arrival of the month of May, the 2022 European Semester Spring Package is anticipated soon. After a transformative year in 2021, which saw the launch of the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) under NextGenerationEU, the European Semester cycle has resumed its role as the reference frame

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With its proposed directive on gender pay transparency, the European Commission has significantly bolstered the set of tools for delivering its objectives compared to those presented in its 2014 Recommendation. The proposed portfolio of measures addresses many shortcomings of the instruments that na

18 Iunie 2021
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Decision-makers approached minimum wage setting for 2021 cautiously due to the economic uncertainty caused by the pandemic. Despite this, nominal statutory minimum wages rose in most Member States and the UK, although at lower rates than in recent years.

8 Iunie 2021
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In the context of the ongoing trend of a fall in collective bargaining coverage, and recent calls at EU level to promote collective bargaining coverage as an instrument to support fair and decent wages, new data from Eurofound’s fourth European Company Survey (ECS) show that two-thirds of workers (i

28 Octombrie 2020
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The coronavirus disease (Covid-19) is having drastic consequences for the world of work. In most European countries workers who are not delivering essential ‘frontline’ services are being asked to stay home. Unfortunately many are out of work, while many of those who are not are minimum-wage and low

1 Aprilie 2020
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As one of their ‘100 days in office’ initiatives, the new European Commission intends to propose an initiative for an EU minimum wage. The aim is that by 2024 every worker in the EU should earn a fair and adequate wage, no matter where they live.

15 Ianuarie 2020
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Trade unions in many EU Member States face the issue of declining membership. This is a fundamental challenge for organised labour, but it is premature to speak about the redundancy unions: when it comes to important decisions affecting the workplace, restructuring being one, trade unions remain a p

20 Noiembrie 2019
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The International Labour Organization (ILO) met for the first time 100 years ago, and right at the top of the agenda for discussion for this new specialised UN agency was the 8-hour working day. This discussion subsequently resulted in the Hours of Work (Industry) Convention, which stated that ‘The

12 Noiembrie 2019
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The European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work last year documented the case of a Dutch temporary work agency that hired workers of various nationalities to work for a construction company in Belgium. The wages were suspiciously low, and the Belgian Labour Inspectorate believed that EU law guarantee

17 Iulie 2019

Upcoming publications results (8)

This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the graphical industry. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation

July 2025

This report reviews the quality of the national social partners’ involvement in the implementation of the reforms and investments shaping the digital and green transition in the context of national policymaking. These reforms and investments stem mainly from the Recovery and Resilience Facility.

March 2025

This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the extractive industries sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective par

December 2024

This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the construction sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participatio

December 2024

This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the chemical sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in

December 2024

This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the road transport sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participat

December 2024

This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the postal and courier activities sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effec

November 2024

This publication comprises individual country reports on developments in working life in each of the 27 EU Member States and Norway in 2023, based on national research and survey results. The topics covered include the political context in 2023; updates on the social partners and social dialogue ins

July 2024
Data results (10)

Eurofound publishes gross and nominal statutory minimum wages applicable in EU countries that have a statutory minimum wage.

25 Ianuarie 2024
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