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  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    Following the special Employment Summit [1] in Luxembourg in November 1997
    (EU9711168F [2]), EU Member States agreed a set of Employment Guidelines [3]
    designed to provide a framework for national action under four main "pillars"
    - employability, adaptability, entrepreneurship and equal opportunities. Each
    Member State was to draw up a National Action Plan (NAP) for consideration at
    the June 1998 European Council meeting in Cardiff. The French Action Plan for
    Employment, 1998 [4] (Plan français d'action pour l'emploi 1998) was adopted
    by the Council of Ministers on 15 April 1998 and submitted to the European
    Commission on the same day.

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/elm/summit/en/home.htm
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/employment-summit-agrees-limited-package-of-measures-to-combat-unemployment
    [3] http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/empl&esf/docs/guideen.htm
    [4] http://www.europa.eu.int/en/comm/dg05/elm/naps/fr_en.pdf

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    Norway has experienced favourable employment statistics over the last few
    years. Newly published figures from Statistics Norway show that there has
    been a further fall in unemployment, and the employment rate is higher than
    ever. Norway is not a member of the European Union, and is thus not bound by
    a commitment to formulate National Action Plans [1] for employment in line
    with the EU's 1998 Employment Guidelines [2]. Employment policy goals are,
    however, worked out annually in the National Budget.

    [1] http://www.europa.eu.int/en/comm/dg05/elm/naps/naps.htm
    [2] http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/empl&esf/docs/guideen.htm

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    On 10 May 1998, employers and the trade unions in the Dutch healthcare sector
    reached a new collective agreement. This was made possible after a debate in
    the Second Chamber of the Dutch Parliament, in which the outgoing Minister of
    Health offered employers a chance for renegotiation in the autumn if the
    budget proves to be inadequate.

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    The Spanish government, in drawing up its National Action Plan for employment
    in response to the EU employment guidelines, for submission to the June 1998
    Cardiff summit, has given priority to active employment policies supported by
    training and local activity. However, the trade unions have severely
    criticised the Plan and are organising protests against it.

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    According to Sergio Cofferati, general secretary of Italy's Cgil trade union
    confederation, EU Economic and Monetary Union may have major consequences for
    industrial relations, as the importance of the supranational level is bound
    to increase. For this reason, in May 1998 Mr Cofferati suggested the
    introduction of European-level collective agreements, provoking a hostile
    reaction from employers.

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    Long-running disputes in the governing bodies of the FEP brought the union
    organisation to a standstill in March 1998 and have led to the formation of a
    new confederation for white-collar workers in Luxembourg's private sector.

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    In May 1998, the Portuguese Government announced proposals for a new basic
    law on social security, containing structural measures designed to strengthen
    system and address its financial sustainability. The proposals incorporate
    some recommendations arising from the dialogue between the Government and the
    social partners.

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    Personnel leasing/secondment (personaluthyrning) is the Swedish term for the
    situation whereby persons under an employment contract with one firm are
    leased to work in another firm. It covers arrangements known variously as
    hiring-out of labour or temporary agency work in other countries. The
    practice was deregulated in Sweden in 1991. In 1993, the
    conservative-liberal-centre Government of the day repealed the requirement
    that such firms had to have a licence in order to operate.

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    STTK, Finland's white-collar workers' trade union confederation, proposed in
    May 1998 that a "Finnish model" for reducing working time should be created
    before 2000. Other union organisations have greeted this idea with
    scepticism.

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    A 1997 Act establishing the equality of women and men with respect to night
    work came into force in Belgium in April 1998. Trade unions do not approve of
    this law on the grounds that it removes the power of decision over permitting
    night work from sectoral joint committees, and abolishes the voluntary nature
    of night work. However, in the name of promoting equal opportunities, a
    further step has now been taken towards "normalising" a practice that had
    been meant to remain exceptional under Belgian law.

Series

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

  • European Jobs Monitor

    This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2016

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2015

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 1996

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2001

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2000

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Company Survey 2004

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

Forthcoming publications

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