The meeting of the Labour and Social Affairs Council of Ministers held under
the UK Presidency on 3-4 June 1998 in Luxembourg was primarily dedicated to
the National Action Plans  (NAP s) for employment produced by the Member
States in response to the 1998 Employment Guidelines  (EU9805107N ).
The Council held two consecutive debates on the NAPs, the first on 3 June
involving only the Ministers of Labour and Social Affairs, and the second at
a joint session on 4 June 1998 with the Education Council of Ministers. In
the course of the debate, Ministers were invited to discuss their NAPs in
relation to the four "pillars" of employability, entrepreneurship,
adaptability and equal opportunities. There was a broad consensus that basic
educational provision needs to be improved to meet the needs of labour
markets. Efforts are to be focused on those who have left school without any
marketable qualifications, and a greater emphasis is to be placed on lifelong
learning. Many delegations emphasised the importance of involving the social
partners in labour market policy. "Mainstreaming" was approved as the most
effective approach to achieving greater equality of opportunity. These
discussions were held in preparation for the Cardiff European Council meeting
later in the month, where the NAPs were to be assessed.
While France's CNPF employers' confederation has been vociferously opposing
the law - adopted in May 1998 - implementing the 35-hour working week in
2000, large companies have been negotiating agreements trading off "working
time" for "flexibility". These agreements will be implemented prior to the
legislation coming into force, in return for substantial benefits for the
employers. Eurocopter France is a "pioneer" in the metalworking industry.
Could the agreement it signed with four unions on 31 March 1998 set a
It is common practice in Norway for industry-level collective agreements to
stipulate the period during the day within which the standard working week of
37.5 hours may be worked - ie the earliest possible starting time and the
latest possible finishing time. Normally this period is set at between 06.00
and 17.00. If working hours fall outside this period, additional payments are
due in compensation.
Adopted in June 1996, the EU Directive on parental leave (96/34/EC ) was
the first to emerge from the procedure created by the social policy Protocol
and Agreement  annexed to the Maastricht Treaty, whereby the
European-level social partners may directly negotiate agreements which can
then be implemented by the EU Council of Ministers (TN9801201S ). The
Directive left many specific issues for each Member State to decide on when
implementing national transposition legislation (by 3 June 1998). The Irish
Government's response, the Parental Leave Bill 1998 was published in early
June and will come into effect by 3 December. The key points are as follows.
In June 1998, more than one year on from the first experiences in
supplementary occupational pension schemes, it was possible to carry out a
first assessment of the development of pension funds in Italy.
Following one year of work, the first stage of Greece's social dialogue
process on the issue of social security concluded at the end of May 1998. We
examine the conclusions drawn so far and present a brief evaluation of these
findings by the General Confederation of Greek Labour (GSEE).
A framework bill on fighting all forms of social exclusion - which includes
provisions on job creation - was passed by France's National Assembly in May
1998, with Senate approval planned for July. This article outlines the main
changes to the draft legislation since it was passed at cabinet level in
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This report analyses the working conditions and job quality of different types of self-employed workers. Drawing on data from the European Working Conditions Survey, it looks into policies in Member States aimed at addressing the challenges and opportunities associated with specific types of self-employment.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the chemical sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the chemical sector in the EU Member States.
The focus of this report is on the role that human capital plays in determining inequalities across the EU, as well as within Member States. Using Cedefop’s work in this area, the report provides a comparative analysis of national trends in education and lifelong learning, including differences between educational groups in terms of income, living conditions and health.
The report maps trends in income inequality and examines the situation of the middle classes in the EU during 2020, the year most associated with the COVID-19 lockdowns. It charts developments in the size and composition of middle-class households across countries, identifies those that suffered disproportionately in 2020. Taking a longer lens, the report describes the evolution of income inequalities over the last 15 years, comparing the Great Recession (2007–2009) with the COVID-19 pandemic, and outlines the trends both between and within Member States.
This report explores the implications of the right of all EU citizens to live independently. It investigates the barriers faced by people who wish to live independently, and the situation of people at risk of living in institutional settings. It maps the various measures taken by EU Member States to foster independent living and autonomy. The report also includes policy pointers to support future decision-makers and provides a review of lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic.