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  • Article
    2 februar 2014

    Various types of temporary work in Belgium have different contractual
    agreements. These include paid training schemes, student jobs, occasional
    work, service vouchers, apprenticeships, fixed-term contracts and temporary
    agency work [1]. Most of these work contracts are partly or fully covered by
    Collective Agreement 36 of 27 November 1981.


  • Article
    2 februar 2014

    On 17 September, the tripartite supervisory board of the Estonian
    Unemployment Insurance Fund (Töötukassa [1]) proposed reducing unemployment
    insurance premiums from 3% to 2.1%. The board were in favour of this proposal
    by four votes to two. Representatives of both employers and trade unions
    voted in favour, arguing that the EUIF’s current reserves are large enough
    to survive another crisis. By the end of 2013, the net assets of the EUIF
    were expected to be €525.3 million, predicted to increase to €529.4
    million by the end of 2014. According to the social partners’ estimates, at
    the reduced rate of 2.1% the EUIF would collect €125.7 million gross
    revenue in 2014 and its expected outgoings would be €121.6 million.


  • Article
    2 februar 2014

    On 29 October 2013, French Labour Minister Michel Sapin sent a government
    statement (in French, 1MB PDF) [1] to the departments of his ministry about
    the implementation of labour inspectorate reform. The reform was later the
    subject of a paper on the reform of the labour inspectorate (in French) [2]
    presented to France’s Council of Ministers on 6 November 2013.


  • Report
    30 januar 2014

    The aim of this working paper is to provide information about the working conditions and in-service training opportunities of early childhood education and care (ECEC) workers and to describe how these factors are linked to outcomes for children. This paper is part of the research project ‘Assessing childcare services’ being carried out by Eurofound in 2013 and 2014. The project focuses on the two dimensions of early childhood education and care that have been the main focus of policy initiatives at European level: ensuring that services are accessible and that they are of good quality.

  • Report
    28 januar 2014
    This report explores how Europeans perceive the quality of their societies, and of their public services. It looks at such aspects of society as trust in institutions and other people, perceived tensions between social groups, attitudes towards migrants and the effects of the economic crisis on social inclusion and social cohesion. It finds that satisfaction with the economic situation of one’s country, not being in employment and overall life satisfaction appear to boost satisfaction with public services; hardship appears to reduce it.
  • ERM Quarterly
    28 januar 2014

    Recent months have seen an improvement in economic outlook, a calming of the sovereign debt crisis and a stabilisation of unemployment rates. ECB President Mario Draghi was, however, cautious in his assessment of the emergent European recovery in January, calling it ‘modest’, ‘weak’ and ‘fragile’. This fourth issue for 2013 includes: Macroeconomic trends and prospects; Job creation and job loss at a glance (1/10/13 - 31/12/13); Sectoral distribution of job losses/job gains, and top five cases; Support instruments for restructuring in Greece; Cases in focus: RTVV, Spain - Liepajas Metalurgs, Latvia; Retail sector in focus – Amazon's expansion.

  • Article
    27 januar 2014

    On 20 November 2013, the Trades Union Congress (TUC [1]) held a national day
    of action to highlight the issue of blacklisting. Blacklisting is the
    practice of illegally denying construction and other workers employment
    because of their union activities which can include raising health and safety
    concerns on building sites. The practice of blacklisting has been a
    long-standing union grievance, especially since 2009 when a raid on an
    organisation known as the Consulting Association revealed a database
    containing personal information about more than 3,000 trade unionists and
    others, which had been used for blacklisting purposes by 44 construction
    companies (*UK1210019I* [2]).


  • Article
    27 januar 2014

    Elections were held in Germany on 22 September 2013, with Chancellor Angela
    Merkel’s party, the Christian Democrats (CDU [1]), winning by a clear
    margin. The CDU secured 41.5% of the vote, a gain of 7.7 percentage points
    compared to 2009. The Social Democrats (SPD [2]) were in second place with
    25.7%, up 2.7 percentage points on 2009.


  • Article
    27 januar 2014

    A recent study in Austria has shown that part-time workers have significantly
    lower hourly wages than full-time workers. The study comes from the Federal
    Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection (BMASK [1]). It is
    based on an analysis of the Structure of Earnings Survey 2010 data, which is
    conducted every four years by Statistics Austria [2].


  • Article
    27 januar 2014

    In the parliamentary elections of 2013, Norway’s centre-left government was
    replaced by a right-wing coalition of the Conservative Party (Hoyre [1]),
    whose leader Erna Solberg is the new Prime Minister, and the Progress Party
    (FrP [2]). The new government will seek support for their political platform
    from two smaller parties, the Christian Democrats (KrF [3]) and the Liberal
    Party (Venstre [4]). After the election, all four parties agreed the basic
    guiding principles for a new government, although the two larger parties were
    to be the coalition partners.



  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications