The dawn of 2022 brought muted optimism to a Europe beginning to emerge from the COVID-19 pandemic, and the progress of vaccination programmes worldwide brought hope. Government and EU support during the pandemic had kept unemployment at bay, averting the widescale collapse of businesses. In step with the EU’s plans for the year, Eurofound’s focus was firmly on a post-pandemic Europe: the recovery and the twin transition to a green and digital economy. All this changed with Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the start of a war of aggression. The EU and its institutions were compelled to respond rapidly.
Europe faces a winter of uncertainty and potentially discontent. The cost of living is rising rapidly and the spectre of recession looms.
Economic concerns are affecting citizens’ trust in institutions. Research by Eurofound has indicated a decrease in trust in national institutions across the European Union – including in governments, healthcare systems and the police.
Tässä raportissa esitellään Eurofoundin tutkimusta etätyöstä covid-19-pandemian aikana vuosina 2020 ja 2021. Siinä tarkastellaan muutoksia etätyön yleisyydessä, kotoa käsin työskentelevien työntekijöiden työoloissa ja tähän työjärjestelyyn liittyviä kysymyksiä käsittelevissä säännöksissä. Tulokset paljastavat etätyön nopean yleistymisen pandemian seurauksena: vuonna 2021 kaksi kymmenestä eurooppalaisesta työntekijästä teki etätyötä. Tähän määrään ei todennäköisesti olisi päästy ennen vuotta 2027 ilman pandemiaa.
Eurofoundin alkuvuodesta 2020 aloittaman Eläminen, työskentely ja covid-19-pandemia -tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää pandemian laaja-alaisia vaikutuksia EU:n kansalaisten työhön ja elämään. Keväällä 2022 toteutetulla Eurofoundin tutkimuksen viidennellä kierroksella käsitellään myös Ukrainan sodan aiheuttamaa uutta epävarmaa todellisuutta, ennätyksellisen korkeaa inflaatiota ja elinkustannusten jyrkkää nousua. Euroopan koulutussäätiö (ETF) julkaisi lyhyemmän version tutkimuksesta pilottikyselynä kymmenessä Euroopan unionin naapurimaassa.
Eurofound’s European Restructuring Monitor database reveals the impact of the energy crisis on employment in the EU. Following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, energy prices have hit record highs. The European Commission imposed sanctions and limitations on the import of oil and gas from Russia, which has reacted by reneging on supply commitments to many Member States. Compared to other countries, market disruption has been especially acute in the EU, given the bloc’s overdependence on Russian energy supply.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the electricity sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
Tässä raportissa analysoidaan työmarkkinavuoropuhelun ja työehtosopimusneuvottelujen roolia covid-19-pandemiasta aiheutuneiden haasteiden ratkaisemisessa siviili-ilmailualalla. Työmarkkinaosapuolet osallistuivat eri Euroopan maissa eri tavoin toimenpiteisiin, joita otettiin käyttöön pandemian kielteisten vaikutusten vähentämiseksi. Useimmissa maissa työmarkkinavuoropuhelulla ja työehtosopimusneuvotteluilla oli merkittävä rooli, mutta toisissa rooli oli pienempi.
Tässä raportissa analysoidaan työmarkkinavuoropuhelun ja työehtosopimusneuvottelujen roolia niiden haasteiden käsittelyssä, joita covid-19-pandemia sai aikaan tai pahensi sairaanhoitoalalla. Siinä selvitetään myös, mukautettiinko työmarkkinavuoropuhelun ja työehtosopimusneuvottelujen olemassa olleita prosesseja kansallisella tasolla näihin haasteisiin vastaamiseksi.
Tämä raportti laaditaan osana Euroopan komission Eurofoundille toimeksiantamaa kolmivuotista pilottihanketta (2021–2023) ”Vähimmäispalkan rooli yleisen työvoimatakuun perustamisessa”. Siinä keskitytään hankkeen moduuliin 3, jossa tutkitaan itsenäisten ammatinharjoittajien vähimmäispalkkoja ja muita palkkiomuotoja. Joidenkin itsenäisten ammatinharjoittajaryhmien hankalan tilanteen vuoksi jotkin jäsenvaltiot ovat ottaneet käyttöön tai käyvät parhaillaan keskusteluja joidenkin lakisääteisten vähimmäispalkkojen ehdottamisesta tietyille itsenäisten ammatinharjoittajien ryhmille.
Hallitusten vuonna 2020 covid-19-pandemian hallitsemiseksi käyttöön ottamat tiukat kansanterveysrajoitukset muuttivat äkillisesti työelämää ja muokkasivat sitä edelleen kahden seuraavan vuoden ajan. Maaliskuun ja marraskuun 2021 välisenä aikana puhelinkyselynä toteutetussa Euroopan työolotutkimuksessa (European Working Conditions Telephone Survey, EWCTS) tehtiin yli 70 000 haastattelua 36 maassa. Kyseessä on korkealaatuinen todennäköisyyksiin perustuva tutkimus. Tavoitteena oli antaa yksityiskohtainen kuva eurooppalaisten työelämästä kyseisenä poikkeuksellisena aikana.
The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This paper provides an analytical summary of state of the art academic and policy literature on the impact of climate change and policies to manage transitions to a carbon neutral economy on employment, working conditions, social dialogue and living conditions. It maps the key empirical findings around the impact of climate change and the green transitions on jobs, sectors, regions and countries in Europe, identifying the opportunities and risks that climate change policies bring to European labour markets.
As part of its response to Russia’s war on Ukraine, the EU swiftly activated its Temporary Protection Directive for those fleeing the conflict in Ukraine – enabling displaced persons to settle in the EU and have access to the labour market and basic public services. This policy brief highlights the main barriers encountered by these refugees (over 5 million people to date) when seeking a job and provides suggestions on how to facilitate their integration.
With the expansion of telework and different forms of hybrid work as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important for policymakers to consider both the opportunities and the negative consequences that may result. This report will explore potential scenarios for such work. In doing so, it will identify trends and drivers, and predict how they might interact to create particular outcomes and how they are likely to affect workers and businesses. Policy pointers will outline what could be done to facilitate desirable outcomes and to avoid undesirable ones.
Living and working in Europe, Eurofound’s 2022 yearbook, provides a snapshot of the latest developments in the work and lives of Europeans as explored in the Agency’s research activities over the course of 2022. Eurofound’s research on working and living conditions in Europe provides a bedrock of evidence for input into social policymaking and achieving the Agency’s vision ‘to be Europe’s leading knowledge source for better life and work’.
The term ‘hybrid work’ became popular due to the upsurge of telework during the COVID-19 pandemic. The term has been increasingly used to refer to situations in which (teleworkable) work is performed both from the usual place of work (normally the employer’s premises) and from home (as experienced during the pandemic) or other locations. However, the concept of hybrid work is still blurry, and various meanings are in use. This topical update brings clarity to this concept by exploring available information from recent literature and the Network of Eurofound Correspondents.
Housing affordability is a matter of great concern across the EU. Poor housing affordability leads to housing evictions, housing insecurity, problematic housing costs and housing inadequacy. These problems negatively affect health and well-being, create unequal living conditions and opportunities, and come with healthcare costs, reduced productivity and environmental damage. Private market tenants face particularly large increases in the cost of housing.
Eurofound's annual review of minimum wages reports on the development of statutory and collectively agreed minimum wages across the EU and the processes through which they were set. The focus of this year’s report is on the impact of high inflation on the setting of minimum wage rates. In addition, new figures on the net value of minimum wages are presented, along with the latest policy-relevant research in the EU Member States and Norway.
Building on previous work by Eurofound, this report will investigate intergenerational dynamics over time. During the 2008 double-dip recession, worrying intergenerational divides appeared in many Member States, and while some of the economic and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is universal, early data suggests disparities across demographic cohorts. Eurofound will examine how different age groups may have been affected in terms of their health, labour market participation, quality of life and financial needs, both in the short term and in the long term.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
Are the policies required to meet the commitments outlined under the EU’s plan for a green transition, the Fit-for-55 package, and the associated budgetary commitments – the Green New Deal – likely to lead to positive or negative employment outcomes by 2030? What types of jobs will be created or destroyed? Will shifts in employment be skewed towards the bottom, middle or top of the job–wage distribution? This report aims to provide answers to these questions, using macro-modelled estimates of the likely impacts of these policies on the structure of employment.