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  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    The Vlaams Blok, a xenophobic and extreme right-wing Flemish nationalist
    party, is currently seeking legitimacy as the defender of "ordinary people".
    With its populist stand against immigrants and French-speakers, the party has
    won a large number of votes in some towns in Flanders, particularly amongst
    those sections of the population most badly hit by unemployment and worsening
    living conditions.

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    On 25 April 1997, the Saxon metalworking employers' association
    (Arbeitgeberverband der Sächsischen Metall- und Elektroindustrie, VSME) and
    the metalworkers' trade union, IG Metall, signed new collective agreements
    for the 87,000 employees in the Saxon metal industry. The agreements include
    a new agreement on wages and salaries, new framework agreements for white-
    and blue-collar workers, and a new agreement to secure employment
    (Beschäftigungssicherungstarifvertrag). The agreements mainly follow the
    pattern of the agreements which have already been agreed in other regions of
    eastern Germany, and conclude the 1997 collective bargaining round in east
    German metalworking.

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    An agreement for Italy's first regional occupational pensions fund was signed
    in March 1997 by the Veneto local organisations of Confindustria, the main
    employers' organisation, and of the CISL trade union confederation. The
    initiative has met with hostility from CGIL and uncertainty from UIL, the
    other two main union confederations.

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    According to the Austrian Chamber of the Economy (Wirtschaftskammer
    Österreich, WKÖ) there were 162,339 salaried employees in industrial
    establishments in 1995. This was nearly 35% of total employment in industry.
    (There were another 8,605 in industrial enterprises in the construction
    industry where they accounted for 23% of employment). The pay scales applying
    to these employees have been changed from 1 May 1997, affecting 84% of the
    total in industry. The changes come in the form of a collective agreement
    concluded between the Federal Section Industry (Bundessektion Industrie) of
    the WKÖ and the Industry and Crafts Section (Sektion Industrie und Gewerbe)
    of the Union of Salaried Employees (Gewerkschaft der Privatangestellten,
    GPA). The negotiations started in May 1995 and were concluded on 28 October

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    April 1997 saw the conclusion of the first collective agreement covering
    Portuguese social welfare institutions, where conditions of employment were
    previously governed by state regulations.

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    In a previous EIRO review of the industrial relations consequences of the new
    Labour Government (UK9704125F [1]) it was suggested that it was unlikely that
    the Government would produce an all-embracing employment bill in its first
    term of office, and this has proved correct. However, the social partners
    were still relatively pleased with announcements made on measures to tackle
    unemployment and low pay.


  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    The recent Commission Communication on /Modernising and improving social
    protection in the European Union/ (COM (97)102 of 12 March 1997- EU9703113N
    [1]) is merely the latest step in a long process of debate revolving around
    the question of how systems of social protection can best be adapted to
    today's changing economic, social and demographic situation. It is a debate
    which has in the past clearly been influenced by the limited nature of
    Community legal competence in this area. This is restricted to the
    coordination of national social security schemes in cases where citizens
    exercise their rights to free movement within the Union. Member states have
    long resisted any attempts at a harmonisation of social protection systems,
    which have developed very differently as a result of every country's
    socio-economic, political and cultural heritage.


  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    A recent study published by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
    Development (OECD) on the Belgian labour market and social climate has
    recommended drastic changes to the country's institutional and socio-economic
    structure. The most notable recommendations include a plea for greater
    flexibility, less government intervention in industrial relations, lower
    unemployment benefits, abolition of the indexation of pay to consumer prices
    and easier procedures for recruitment and especially dismissal. In summary,
    it may be said that the OECD largely advises Belgium to adopt the "American
    model". This study was to a certain extent reinforced by a report from
    European Commissioner Yves-Thibault de Silguy who also pleads for higher wage
    differentials, lower employment costs and greater flexibility. Both studies
    also stress the importance of low labour costs and high returns on

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    On 29 April 1997, the management and works council at Mohn GmbH, a subsidiary
    of one of Germany's biggest media corporations, Bertelsmann, signed a works
    agreement [1]- known as the "Pact for partnership 1997" - for the 1,700 or so
    employees at the Mohn printing works in Gütersloh.


  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    A recent collective agreement signed at Telecom Italia Mobile (TIM) provides
    for the development of social dialogue and workers' participation, through
    information and discussion on industrial policies and joint decision-making
    on vocational training.


  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications